A. G. Soto-Valladares and
R. De La Torre-Almaraz, Laboratorio de Microbiología, UBIPRO, FES-IZTACALA, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. De los Barrios No 1. Los Reyes Iztacala, Tlalnepantla Edo. de México C.P. 54090; and
B. Xoconostle-Cazares and
R. Ruíz-Medrano, Departamento de Biotecnología y Bioingeniería, CINVESTAV-TICOMAN-IPN, Ave. IPN No 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatengo. CP 07360, México DF
In 2010, a survey for viral diseases in commercial, orchid-producing greenhouses was carried out in Morelos, Mexico. Many symptomatic plants were observed. The most common leaf symptoms were yellow mottle, yellow streaks, and chlorotic and necrotic ringspots. Leaf samples were collected from eight symptomatic plants from the following genera: Encyclia, Oncidium, Shomburghia, Brassia, Guarianthe, Cattleya, Epidendrum, Vanilla, Xilobium, Laelia, and Brassocattleya. Samples were tested using double-antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA (Agdia, Elkhart, IN) with antiserum for Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV), Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV), Cymbidium ringspot mosaic virus, and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and a general antiserum for potyviruses. At least one plant from each genus was positive to CymMV and ORSV as individual or mixed infections. Encyclia and Laelia plants were the most frequently found with mixed infections by both viruses. All genera were negative for TMV and potyviruses. Total RNA extracts were obtained from all ELISA-positive samples by a modified silica capture protocol (2). Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was carried out with general polymerase (RdRp) gene primers corresponding to the Potexvirus group (3) and specific primers for the coat protein gene (CP) of CymMV and ORSV (1). The PCR amplification from a positive sample of each genus was resolved in agarose gels. Amplification products of the expected size were obtained for CymMV and ORSV. Five CymMV RdRp gene clones from five different plants of Laelia (GenBank Accession Nos. HQ393958, HQ393959, HQ393960, HQ393961, and HQ393962), two CP gene clones of CP gene of CymMV from two different plants of Oncidium (GenBank Accession Nos. HQ393956 and HQ393957), and three CP clones of CP of ORSV from three different plants of Encyclia (GenBank Accession Nos. HQ393953, HQ393954, and HQ393955) were sequenced. The nucleotide sequences of the Mexican orchid CymMV isolates were 96 to 97% identical to CymMV sequences in the GenBank, while those of ORSV were 99 to 100% identical to deposited ORSV sequences. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CymMV and ORSV in orchids in Mexico, which are two of the most important quarantine virus in orchids in Mexico.
References: (1) P. Ajjikuttira et al. J. Gen. Virol. 86:1543, 2005. (2) J. R. Thompson et al. J. Virol. Methods 111:85, 2003. (3) R. A. A. van der Vlugt and M. Berendsen. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 108:367, 2002.