F. P. Chen,
J. R. Fan,
T. Zhou, and
X. L. Liu, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193;
J. L. Liu, ShenYang Research Institute of Chemical Industry, Shenyang 110021, China; and
G. Schnabel, Department of Entomology, Soils and Plant Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634
Sterol 14α-demethylase inhibitors (DMIs) continue to be important in the management of brown rot of Monilinia spp. worldwide. In this study, the sensitivity of 100 Monilinia fructicola isolates from four unsprayed orchards and two packinghouses in Beijing, China, to the new DMI fungicide SYP-Z048 was evaluated and ranged from 0.003 to 0.039 and 0.016 to 0.047 μg/ml, respectively. Laboratory mutants resistant to SYP-Z048 were generated using UV irradiation but no mutants occurred spontaneously. Resistance was stable after 10 weekly consecutive transfers on fungicide-free medium. Three parameters, including growth rate, sporulation in vitro, and lesion area, were significantly different when sensitive isolates and resistant mutants were analyzed as groups. Mutants grew more slowly and developed significantly smaller lesions on detached fruit, and their sporulation ability in vitro was reduced. Cross resistance was found between SYP-Z048 and propiconazole (ρ = 0.82, P < 0.0001) but not between SYP-Z048 and tridemorph, carbendazim, procymidone, azoxystrobin, or pyrimethanil. SYP-Z048 resistance in mutants exhibiting 50% mycelial growth inhibition values greater than 0.3 μg/ml was correlated with the presence of a mutation in the CYP51 gene that encodes the target protein for DMI fungicides. The mutation caused an amino acid change from tyrosine to phenylalanine at position 136 (Y136F). To our knowledge, this is the first baseline sensitivity of M. fructicola collected from China to a DMI fungicide. The inability of M. fructicola to generate spontaneous DMI-resistant mutants coupled with reduced fitness of Y136F mutants can explain why this target site mutation has not yet emerged as a DMI fungicide resistance determinant in M. fructicola field populations worldwide.