Xiao Hong Lu, Department of Plant Pathology, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824;
R. Michael Davis,
S. Livingston, and
J. Nunez, Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis 95616; and
Jianjun J. Hao, Department of Plant Pathology, Michigan State University
The identity of 172 isolates of Pythium spp. from cavity spot lesions on carrot produced in California and Michigan was determined, and their sensitivity to three fungicides was examined. Pythium violae accounted for 85% of California isolates, with P. irregulare, P. dissotocum (the first report as a carrot pathogen in the United States), P. ultimum, and P. sulcatum making the balance. P. sulcatum, P. sylvaticum, and P. intermedium were the most commonly recovered (85%) species in Michigan; others from Michigan included P. intermedium, P. irregulare, and an unclassified strain, M2-05. On fungicide-amended media, 93% of isolates were sensitive to mefenoxam (inhibition of mycelial growth was >60% at 10 μg active ingredient [a.i.]/ml); however, two of five isolates of P. irregulare from California were highly resistant (≤60% inhibition at 100 μg a.i./ml); about half of the isolates of P. intermedium and P. sylvaticum and a single isolate of P. violae were highly or intermediately resistant to mefenoxam (>60% inhibition at 100 μg a.i./ml, or ≤60% inhibition at 10 μg a.i./ml). P. dissotocum, P. irregulare, P. sulcatum, M2-05, and three of seven isolates of P. intermedium were insensitive to fluopicolide (effective concentrations for 50% growth inhibition [EC50] were >50 μg a.i./ml), while P. sylvaticum, P. ultimum, P. violae, and some isolates in P. intermedium were sensitive (EC50 < 1 μg a.i./ml). All isolates were sensitive to zoxamide (EC50 < 1 μg a.i./ml). Sensitivity baselines of P. violae to zoxamide and fluopicolide were established.