J. H. Park, Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Korea;
K. S. Han, Horticultural and Herbal Crops Environment Division, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Suwon 441-440, Korea;
Y. D. Kwon, Team of Tree Research, Gyeonggi-do Forest Environment Research Center, Osan 447-290, Korea; and
H. D. Shin, Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Korea
Tricyrtis macropoda Miq. (syn. T. dilatata Nakai), known as speckled toadlily, is a perennial herb native to China, Japan, and Korea. The plant has been highly praised for its beautiful flowers and rare populations in natural habitats. In September 2006, several dozen plants were heavily damaged by leaf spots and blight in cultivated plantings in the city of Pocheon, Korea. The infections with the same symptoms were repeated every year. In July 2011, the same symptoms were found on T. macropoda in the cities of Gapyeong and Osan, Korea. The leaf lesions began as small, water-soaked, pale greenish to grayish spots, which enlarged to form concentric rings and ultimately coalesced. A number of blackish acervuli were formed in the lesions. Acervuli were mostly epiphyllous, circular to ellipsoid, and 40 to 200 μm in diameter. Setae were two- to three-septate, dark brown at the base, paler upwards, acicular, and up to 100 μm long. Conidia (n = 30) were long obclavate to oblong-elliptical, sometimes fusiform-elliptical, guttulate, hyaline, and 12 to 20 × 4 to 6.5 μm (mean 15.4 × 5.2 μm). These morphological characteristics of the fungus were consistent with the description of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. (2). Voucher specimens (n = 7) were deposited in the Korea University herbarium (KUS). Two isolates, KACC46374 (ex KUS-F25916) and KACC46405 (ex KUS-F26063), were deposited in the Korean Agricultural Culture Collection. Fungal DNA was extracted and the complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA was amplified with the primers ITS1/ITS4 and sequenced. The resulting sequences of 549 bp were deposited in Genbank (Accession Nos. JQ619480 and JQ619481). They showed 100% similarity with a sequence of C. gloeosporioides (EU32619). Isolate KACC46374 was used in a pathogenicity test. Inoculum was prepared by harvesting conidia from 3-week-old cultures on potato dextrose agar. A conidial suspension (2 × 106 conidia/ml) was sprayed onto 15 leaves of three plants. Three noninoculated plants served as controls. Plants were covered with plastic bags to maintain 100% relative humidity for 24 h and then kept in a greenhouse (22 to 28°C and 70 to 80% RH). After 5 days, typical leaf spot symptoms, identical to the ones observed in the field, started to develop on the leaves of inoculated plants. No symptoms were observed on control plants. C. gloeosporioides was reisolated from the lesions of inoculated plants, thus fulfilling Koch's postulates. An anthracnose associated with C. tricyrtii (Teng) Teng was recorded on T. formosana and T. latifolia in China (3) and on T. formosana in Taiwan (1), respectively, without etiological studies. The morphological features of C. tricyrtii are within the variation of C. gloeosporioides (2). To our knowledge, this is the first report of anthracnose of T. macropoda. This report has significance to indigenous plant resource conservation managers and scientists because T. macropoda has been listed as one of the 126 “Rare and Endangered Plants” by the Korea Forest Service since 1991.
References: (1) K. Sawada. Rep. Dept. Agric. Gov. Res. Inst. Formosa 87: 1, 1944. (2) B. C. Sutton. Pages 1–27 in: Colletotrichum Biology, Pathology and Control. J. A. Bailey and M. J. Jeger, eds. CAB International, Wallingford, U.K. 1992. (3) S. C. Teng. Contrib. Biol. Lab. Sci. Soc. China 8:36, 1932.