J. V. de Araújo Filho, Departamento de Fitopatologia e Nematologia, Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, 13418-900, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil;
A. C. Z. Machado, Instituto Agronômico do Paraná, 86047-902, Londrina, PR, Brazil;
R. S. C. A. de Faria and
L. E. A. Camargo, Departamento de Fitopatologia e Nematologia, Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, 13418-900, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
Teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F.) is one of the most important forest crops in Brazil, occupying areas in different regions, such as Goiás, Mato Grosso, Paraná, and São Paulo states. Teak wood is used for many purposes such as shipbuilding, rolling and plywood, firewood, and charcoal. In May 2011, teak symptomatic feeder root samples, exhibiting inconspicuous, small galls, were collected in the municipality of Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil (22°41′46.90″S, 47°38′36.84″W). Specimens were identified through perineal patterns and esterase phenotypes of 20 adult females (1,2). Perineal patterns and esterase phenotypes were consistent with those described for Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal, 1889) Chitwood, 1949 and M. javanica (Treub, 1885) Chitwood, 1949. Perineal patterns of M. arenaria showed a low dorsal arch, compressed dorsolaterally, with lateral field marked by some forked and broken striae; no punctate markings between anus and tail terminus were observed. Perineal patterns of M. javanica were rounded, with low dorsal arch, striae smooth, lateral field distinct, clearly demarcated from striae by parallel lines. From the esterase electrophoresis we obtained A2 (Rm:1.2;1.3) and J3 (Rm:1.0;1.25;1.4) phenotypes, typical from M. arenaria and M. javanica, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. arenaria parasitizing teak roots in Brazil and elsewhere (new host) and the first report of M. javanica infecting teak in the State of São Paulo. Previously, M. javanica was reported to be infecting teak-growing areas in the State of Mato Grosso (3). This finding has a great importance, not only by the inclusion of these parasites in teak pathological scenario, but also for predicting possible damage in plant species used in teak-based intercropping systems.
References: (1) P. R. Esbenshade and A. C. Triantaphyllou. J. Nematol. 22:10, 1990. (2) K. M. Hartman and J. N. Sasser. 1985. Page 115 in: An Advanced Treatise on Meloidogyne. Volume II, Methodology. K. R. Barker et al., eds. North Carolina State University Graphics, Raleigh,1985. (3) R. A. Silva et al. Nematol. Bras. 27:261, 2003.