P. Salamon, Agricultural Biotechnology Center, Szent-Györgyi A. Str. 4, H-2100 Gödöllő, Hungary;
K. Nemes, Agricultural Biotechnology Center, Szent-Györgyi A. Str. 4, H-2100 Gödöllő, Hungary and Department of Plant Pathology, Corvinus University of Budapest, Ménesi Rd. 44, H-1118 Budapest, Hungary;
K. Salánki, Agricultural Biotechnology Center, Szent-Györgyi A. Str. 4, H-2100 Gödöllő, Hungary; and
L. Palkovics, Department of Plant Pathology, Corvinus University of Budapest, Ménesi Rd. 44, H-1118 Budapest, Hungary. The project was funded by TÁMOP- 4.2.1./B-09/1-KMR-2010-0005 and 4.2.2./B-10/1-2010-0023 grants
In June of 2009, stem vascular necrosis, interveinal necrosis of upper leaves, wilting of flowers, and necrotic spots on the pods were observed on garden pea (Pisum sativum L. ‘Rajnai törpe’) in northeast Hungary. A mechanical transmissible plant virus designated Ps091 was isolated from leaves of severely affected plants. Pathological investigations demonstrated that Ps091 had a host range very similar to that of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). It caused necrotic local lesions on Chenopodium spp. and induced systemic yellowing and necrosis on the upper leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, N. clevelandii, and N. glutinosa by mechanical inoculation. Typical symptoms of TSWV infection appeared on the top leaves of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. ‘Albaregia’) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Kecskeméti 3’) inoculated with Ps091. For molecular identification, total nucleic acids were extracted from Ps091-infected tobacco with a standard phenol-chloroform extraction method (2), and reverse transcription-PCR was conducted with TSWV N-gene specific, own designed primers (TSWV-S for: 5′-CCCAGCATTATGGCAAGCC-3′, TSWV-S rev: 5′-TGATCTGGTCGAGGTTTTCCGCTAGCCC-3′). A tobacco plant infected with a reference pepper isolate, TSWV-Ca1 (1), and a healthy tobacco plant served as positive and negative controls, respectively. An approximately 300-bp DNA fragment was amplified from tobacco infected with Ps091 and TSWV-Ca1. The Ps091 amplicon was cloned, sequenced in both directions, and the sequence was deposited in GenBank (Accession No. HQ615692). Blast search analysis showed that TSWV-Ps091 had the highest identity (99%) with TSWV-P170RB strain (GenBank Accession No. DQ431238) in the cognate region. Since the latter isolate is a resistance breaking (RB) strain on pepper, pathogenicity of Ps091 on TSWV resistant pepper and tomato lines was studied. Mechanically inoculated pepper (C. annuum × C. chinense TSR F4 line) and tomato (S. lycopersicum ‘Stevens’) genotypes carrying the Tsw and Sw5 resistance genes, respectively, reacted with necrotic local lesions, but no systemic infections were detected by applying bioassays to N. clevelandii. These results demonstrate that Ps091 does not belong to the RB strains of TSWV. Back inoculations to pea (‘Rajnai törpe’) resulted in necrotic local spots as well as systemic stem and top necrosis, proving the causal relationship between TSWV-Ps091 and the pea disease observed in the field. Although TSWV has been known to cause epidemy in solanaceous crops and tobacco, to our knowledge, this is the first report of its natural occurrence on a legume plant, particularly on pea in Hungary. Because of the extreme severity of the disease caused on pea and high infection pressure, TSWV is a new threat to pea production in this country, where pea is a very important crop.
References: (1) P. Salamon et al. Page 23 in: Plant Protection Days. Budapest, February, 2010. (2) J. L. White and J. M. Kaper. J. Virol. Methods 23:83, 1989.