Diseases caused by aphid-transmitted viruses such as Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) have increased in snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the Midwestern United States. Plants immediately surrounding agricultural fields may serve as primary virus inocula for aphids to acquire and transmit to bean crops. The project objectives were to (i) identify potentially important AMV and CMV reservoirs among naturally infected plants and (ii) determine the relationship between the virus inoculum potential (VIP) in adjacent crop field margins and virus incidence in P. vulgaris. From 2006 to 2008, surveys were conducted to quantify the virus incidence and percentage cover (2008 only) of plants present within 5 m of the P. vulgaris crop. In all, 4,350 individual plants representing 44 species were assayed, with overall AMV and CMV incidences averaging 12 and 1.5%, respectively. A VIP index was developed and used to rank the importance of virus-susceptible plants in adjacent field margins. The overall VIP index for AMV in field margins was weakly associated with AMV incidence in P. vulgaris and no relationship was observed between local CMV inoculum and P. vulgaris incidence, suggesting that factors additional to local inoculum sources may influence CMV epidemics in P. vulgaris.