Rachid Lahlali, AAFC, Saskatoon Research Centre, 107 Science Place, Saskatoon, S7N 0X2, Saskatchewan, Canada, and Plant Pathology Unit, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liege, Passage de Deportes 2, 5030 Gembloux, Belgium;
Yves Brostaux, Applied Statistics, Mathematics and Computer Science Unit, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liege; and
M. Haissam Jijakli, Plant Pathology Unit, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liege
When applied preharvest, antagonistic yeasts that act as biocontrol agents of postharvest fruit diseases must survive the environmental conditions in the field. In particular, UV-B radiation (280 to 320 nm) can greatly reduce their survival and effectiveness. The influence of artificial UV-B radiation on Pichia anomala strain K, an antagonistic yeast with potential for control of postharvest fruit diseases, was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro 50 and 90% lethal dose values were 0.89 and 1.6 Kj/m2, respectively, whereas lethal values in vivo were 3.2 and 5.76 Kj/m2, respectively. UV protectants tested in combination with strain K included congo red, tryptophan, riboflavin, lignin, casein, gelatine, folic acid, tyrosine, and four mixtures. Riboflavin, folic acid, and the mixtures 1% folic acid + 0.5% tyrosine + 0.5% riboflavin (formula 2), 0.5% folic acid + 1% tyrosine + 0.5% riboflavin (formula 3), and 0.5% folic acid + 0.5% tyrosine + 1% riboflavin (formula 4) reduced yeast mortality caused by UV-B radiation in petri dish assays. Riboflavin, folic acid, gelatine, lignin, and tyrosine reduced yeast mortality caused by UV-B radiation on apple fruit surfaces. With the exception of lignin and folic acid, none of the compounds or mixtures increased significantly the ability of strain K to control the postharvest pathogen Penicillium expansum on wounded apple fruit. In contrast, casein, gelatine, tyrosine, congo red, riboflavin, and formulas 1 to 4 significantly reduced the effectiveness of strain K. Further investigations are justified to verify a potential benefit of lignin and folic acid for UV protection of strain K in preharvest applications.