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A New View of Sooty Blotch and Flyspeck

April 2011 , Volume 95 , Number  4
Pages  368 - 383

Mark L. Gleason and Jean C. Batzer, Iowa State University, Ames, IA; Guangyu Sun and Rong Zhang, College of Plant Protection and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Agriculture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China; Maria M. Díaz Arias, Iowa State University, Ames, IA; Turner B. Sutton, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC; Pedro W. Crous, Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Milan Ivanović, Department of Phytomedicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Belgrade-Zemun, Serbia; Patricia S. McManus, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI; Daniel R. Cooley, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA; Ulrich Mayr, Kompetenzzentrum Obstbau – Bodensee, Ravensburg, Germany; Roland W. S. Weber, Obstbauversuchsanstalt, OVB Jork, Jork, Germany; Keith S. Yoder, Virginia Tech Ag Research and Education Center, Winchester, VA; Emerson M. Del Ponte, Universdade Federal Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Alan R. Biggs, West Virginia University, Kearneysville Tree Fruit Research and Education Center, Kearneysville, WV; and Bernhard Oertel, INRES/Gartenbauwissenschaften, Universität Bonn, Bonn, Germany

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Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) fungi colonize the surface wax layer of the fruit of apple, pear, persimmon, banana, orange, papaya, and several other cultivated tree and vine crops. In addition to colonizing cultivated fruit crops, SBFS fungi also grow on the surfaces of stems, twigs, leaves, and fruit of a wide range of wild plants. The disease occurs worldwide in regions with moist growing seasons. SBFS is regarded as a serious disease by fruit growers and plant pathologists because it can cause substantial economic damage. The smudges and stipples of SBFS often result in downgrading of fruit from premium fresh-market grade to processing use. This review describes the major shifts that have occurred during the past decade in understanding the genetic diversity of the SBFS complex, clarifying its biogeography and environmental biology, and developing improved management strategies.

© 2011 The American Phytopathological Society