Q. H. Tang, Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China;
G. Y. Li, and
H. Wang, Agricultural College, Shihezi University, Xinjiang, 832003, China; and
X. B. Zheng and
Y. C. Wang, Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China. Foundations: Natural Sciences Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK2007161) and National “863” program (2006AA10Z433)
Phytophthora sansomeana E.M. Hansen & Reeser is a newly described species and infects Douglas-fir, alfalfa, and soybean (1). Soybean production is an important part of the local economy in Yili State in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwest China. Unfortunately since 2005, root and stem rot disease has emerged on a number of farms. To identify the causal agent, plant samples with symptoms, including whole plant wilting or yellowing and stunting, were collected from fields during 2005 and 2008. Tissue from the edges of stem lesions was placed on selective lima bean agar (LBA) at 20°C for 3 to 4 days (2,3). Four single zoospore isolates of Phytophthora were obtained and maintained on LBA or 10% V8 juice liquid medium for examination of morphological and physiological characteristics. The colonies on LBA were aerial and rosaceous. The isolates were homothallic, and oogonia and oospores were readily produced in culture after 7 days on LBA plates. Oogonia averaged 38 μm and oospore width ranged from 23 to 48 μm and averaged 31 μm. Antheridia were approximately 15 × 12 μm and predominantly amphigynous in V8 juice. Sporangia were terminal or paragynous on persistent sporangiophores, nonpapillate, ovoid to obpyriform, and measured 52 × 35 μm with an average length/breadth ratio of 1.5. Hyphal swellings were produced in V8 juice 2 days after inoculation. The optimum temperature for growth was approximately 25°C and none occurred at 0 or 35°C. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of this Phytophthora species (GenBank FJ966880) agreed 100% with sequences of P. sansomeana isolates deposited in GenBank (GQ853880 and EU925375). Pathogenicity tests were performed by hypocotyl inoculation method (2) using isolate Yili71 and potted soybean cv. Williams. Plants were grown in a growth chamber for 10 days before inoculation in 16-cm-diameter pots (2). Plants were inoculated with 2- × 2-mm plugs of mycelium grown for 4 days on LBA at 25°C, the plugs were adhered to the sides of wounded lower hypocotyls. As controls, plants were inoculated with LBA agar plugs without mycelium (2). Inoculated plants were maintained in a growth chamber at approximately 25°C with a 10-h dark/14-h light cycle and 50% relative humidity and symptom development was monitored daily for 1 week. Wounded stems inoculated with mycelium developed water-soaked lesions, which were similar to those seen on naturally infected plants. A Phytophthora sp. was reisolated from the margins of expanding lesions on wounded stems. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. sansomeana infection of soybean in China and the threat it may pose to soybean production is unclear.
References: (1) E. M. Hansen et al. Mycologia 101:129. 2009. (2) Z. Y. Wang et al. Fungal Genet. Biol. 43:826, 2006. (3) X. B. Zheng. Methods in Phytophthora. Chinese Agriculture Press. Beijing, China, 1995.