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Wildfire of Soybean Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, a New Disease in Korea

November 2009 , Volume 93 , Number  11
Pages  1,214.1 - 1,214.1

I.-S. Myung, Agricultural Microbiology Division, National Academy of Agricultural Science (NAAS), Rural Development Administration (RDA), Suwon 441-707, Korea; J.-W. Kim, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715, Korea; S. H. An, Breeding Team, AgroLife Research Institute, Dongbu HiTec Co., Ltd., Anseong 456-933, Korea; J. H. Lee and S. K. Kim, Northern Agricultural Research Station, Gyeonggi Province Agricultural Research and Extension Services, Yeoncheon 486-833, Korea; and Y.-K. Lee and W. G. Kim, Agricultural Microbiology Division, NAAS, RDA, Suwon 441-707, Korea

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Accepted for publication 7 August 2009.

In 2006 and 2007, a new bacterial disease was observed in field-cultivated soybeans in Boeun District and Munkyung City of Korea. The disease caused severe blighting of soybean (Glycine max) leaves. Soybean leaves in fields showed yellowish spots with brown centers. Brown and dead areas of variable size and shape were surrounded by wide, yellow haloes with distinct margins. Spots might coalesce and affected leaves fell readily. Seven bacterial strains were isolated from chlorotic areas of soybean leaves and all produced white colonies on trypticase soy agar. With the Biolog Microbial Identification System, version 4.2, (Biolog Inc., Hayward, CA) all strains and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci CFBP2106T were identified as P. syringae pv. tabaci with a Biolog similarity index of 0.28 to 0.52 and 0.48 after 24 h. Pathogenicity of the strains (three plants per strain) on soybean leaves at the V5 stage (cv. Hwanggeum) was confirmed by rub inoculation with bacterial suspensions (1 × 108 CFU/ml) in sterile distilled water on the lesions cut 1 cm long on the upper side of the leaves with razor blades and by pinprick on 3-week-old leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun) in the greenhouse. Wildfire symptoms on the soybean leaves and faint halos on tobacco leaves were observed 4 days after inoculation. The identification of reisolated bacterial strains was confirmed with the metabolic fingerprintings on Biolog. LOPAT tests (1) and phenotypic characteristics (3) of the strains were similar to those of the CFBP2106T. Colonies were levan positive, oxidase negative, potato soft rot negative, arginine dihydrase negative, and tobacco hypersensitivity negative. All strains were gram-negative, aerobic rods with a polar flagellum. Strains were negative for esculin hydrolysis, gelatin liquefaction, urea production, accumulation of poly-β-hydroxy butyrate, starch hydrolysis, ornithine dihydrolase, lysine dihydrolase, growth at 37°C, utilization of geraniol, benzoate, cellobiose, sorbitol, trehalose, l-rhamnose, and adonitol. Positive reactions were catalase and arbutin hydrolysis, utilization of sorbitol, d-arabinose, and dl-serine. The strains were variable in utilization of mannitol, sucrose, and d-arabinose. The 1,472-bp PCR fragments of strains, BC2366 (GenBank Accession No. FJ755788) and BC2367 (No. FJ755789) was sequenced using 16S rDNA universal primers (2). The sequences shared 100% identity with the analogous sequences of P. syringae pv. glycenea (GenBank Accession No. AB001443) available in NCBI databases. Based on the phenotypic, genetic, and pathological characteristics, all strains were identified as P. syringae pv. tabaci. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. syringae pv. tabaci causing wildfire on soybean in Korea.

References: (1) R. A. Lelliott et al. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 29:470, 1966. (2) I.-S. Myung et al. Plant Dis. 92:1472, 2008. (3) N. W. Schaad et al., eds. Laboratory Guide for Identification of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. 3rd ed. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN, 2001.

© 2009 The American Phytopathological Society