David P. Morgan,
George F. Driever, and
Dan Felts, University of California, Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier 93648;
William H. Krueger, University of California, Cooperative Extension, Orland 95963; and
Themis J. Michailides, University of California, Department of Plant Pathology, Davis, Kearney Agricultural Center
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Accepted for publication 13 July 2009.
Two empirical models to predict infection events were evaluated for control of Botryosphaeria panicle and shoot blight, caused by a Fusicoccum sp., as well as the effectiveness of early-season fungicide sprays on the control of this disease of pistachio. A model incorporating wetness duration was superior to one based solely on duration of rains ≥1 mm/h for ≥4 h and with temperature ≥11°C. The wetness duration threshold (W) for rain events ≥4 mm at a given temperature (T) for high-risk infection events was W = --7.8 + 397/T and the threshold for medium-risk events was W = --6.9 + 220/T. Wet periods interrupted by ≤12 h were added together to calculate W. In two orchards with high levels of inoculum, one high-risk event resulted in 20 to 23% blighted fruit at harvest and two or three high-risk events resulted in 31 to 80% blighted fruit. Latent infections were 0 to 1% in instances where only low-risk events (one to two events) occurred prior to collection of pistachio fruit for determination of latent infections and were 17 to 36% with one to three high-risk events. Early-season fungicide sprays in April to May effectively controlled panicle and shoot blight when applied up to 12 days before predicted infection events or 5 days after.
© 2009 The American Phytopathological Society