Y. H. Cheng,
R. Y. Wang,
C. C. Chen, and
C. A. Chang, Division of Plant Pathology, Agricultural Research Institute, Wufeng, Taichung 413, Taiwan; and
F.-J. Jan, Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
In May of 2006, samples from tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Known-you 301) exhibiting necrotic symptoms on stems, petioles, and leaves were collected from Chiayi County, Taiwan. Double-antibody sandwich-ELISAs were performed using Cucumber mosaic virus, Tomato mosaic virus, Potato virus Y, Watermelon silver mottle virus, and Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV) polyclonal antibodies. Three of eight samples reacted with antibodies against ChiVMV but not with the others. Using the potyvirus degenerate primers (Hrp 5/Pot 1) (2), an expected 1.5-kb DNA fragment including the 3′-end of the NIb gene, the complete coat protein (CP) gene, and the 3′-nontranslatable region of the virus was amplified from total RNA isolated from these three samples by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. A homology search in GenBank indicated that the new tomato-infecting virus in Taiwan belongs to Pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV) since they shared >90% amino acid identity in the CP gene. A virus culture (Tom1) isolated from one of the diseased tomatoes was then established in Chenopodium quinoa and Nicotiana benthamiana and the CP gene was amplified and sequenced (GenBank Accession No. EU719647). Comparisons of the 807-nt CP gene with those of five PVMV isolates available in GenBank showed 81.5 to 93.1% nucleotide and 90.0 to 97.8% amino acid identity. Tom1 induced irregular necrotic lesions on stems, petioles, and leaves of tomato while inducing only mild mottle symptoms on pepper. Serological cross reaction between ChiVMV and PVMV has been observed previously (1,3) and also found in this study. To differentiate these two potyviruses by RT-PCR, primer pair CPVMVup/dw (5′-TATTC(T/C)TCAGTGTGG(A/T/C)T(T/C)CCACCAT and 5′-(T/C)C(A/T)C(A/T)(A/T/G)(A/T)AA(A/G)CCATAA(A/C)(A/C)ATA(A/G)T(T/C)T) was designed on the basis of the comparison of the CP gene and the 3′-nontranslatable region of the PVMV and ChiVMV. DNA fragments of 171 and 259 bp are expected to be amplified from ChiVMV and PVMV, respectively, by RT-PCR with primers CPVMVup/dw. In a field survey done in 2006, samples from diseased peppers (Capsicum annuum) that reacted with the polyclonal antibodies against ChiVMV were further identified by RT-PCR with primers CPVMVup/dw, indicating that both ChiVMV and PVMV infected pepper crops (Capsicum spp.) in Taiwan. A pepper isolate (Pep1) of PVMV was obtained from Nantou County through three times of single lesion passages on C. quinoa and then propagated on N. benthamiana. The CP gene of Pep1 was amplified and sequenced (GenBank Accession No. EU719646) and found to share 99.1% nucleotide and 100% amino acid identity with that of Tom1. Pep1 caused mild mottle symptoms on leaves of both tomato and pepper. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of PVMV in Taiwan as well as in East Asia.
References: (1) B. Moury et al. Phytopathology 95:227, 2005. (2) S. S. Pappu et al. Plant Dis. 82:1121, 1998. (3) W. S. Tsai et al. Plant Pathol. 58:408, 2008.