G. W. Karugia, United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Gifu University Yanagido 1-1, Gifu 501-1193, Japan;
H. Suga, Life Science Research Centre, Gifu University, Yanagido 1-1, Gifu 501-1193, Japan;
L. R. Gale, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA;
T. Nakajima, National Agricultural Research Center for Kyushu Okinawa Region, National Agriculture and Bio-oriented Research Organization, 2421 Suya, Kumamoto 861-1192 Japan;
K. Tomimura, National Institute of Fruit Tree Science Kuchinotsu Region, 954 Kuchinotsu, Minamisimabara, Nagasaki 859-2501 Japan; and
M. Hyakumachi, United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Gifu University Yanagido 1-1, Gifu 501-1193, Japan
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Accepted for publication 16 October 2008.
The Fusarium graminearum species complex (Fg complex) that consists of at least 11 phylogenetically distinct species contains important Fusarium head blight (FHB) pathogens of wheat and barley worldwide. We obtained members of the Fg complex by sampling from a 500-m2 experimental wheat field in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan in two consecutive years and assessed them for species identity and trichothecene chemotype. Haplotype diversity was estimated by using 11 variable numbers of tandem repeat (VNTR) markers. In addition to these two samples (group 03W in 2003 and group 04W in 2004), pathogen populations from seed that was harvested in Fukuoka Prefecture and planted in the experimental field in 2002 (group 02WSC) and pathogen populations from seed that was harvested in Nagasaki Prefecture and planted in 2003 (group 03WSC) were analyzed for this study. Forty-six isolates were collected in each group. Most isolates from wheat heads were classified as F. asiaticum; only four isolates were classified as F. graminearum sensu stricto (s. str.). Out of a total of 183 Fg complex strains, 80 isolates (44%) were of the NIV type, while 103 isolates (56%), including all four F. graminearum s. str. isolates, were of the 3ADON type. No 15ADON type isolate was detected in this study. Trichothecene chemotype compositions of 03W and 04W were nearly identical. High gene diversity of F. asiaticum was observed in all groups. Based on the observed low level of fixation index (FST) and high level of effective number of migrants (Nm), distinctive population subdivision of F. asiaticum was not inferred among the four groups. These results suggest that FHB in the experimental wheat field in both 2003 and 2004 was caused by a genetically similar population, which prevails in Kumamoto, Fukuoka, and Nagasaki prefectures.
Additional keywords:genetic comparison, Gibberella zeae, scab
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