S. Y. Moon,
I. H. Jeong,
Y. H. Lee, and
D. S. Ra, Agricultural Microbiology Division, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-707, Korea
In July 2007, a leaf spot was observed on seedlings of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in a commercial greenhouse in Sungju County, Korea. Symptoms were dark, circular-to-irregular, water-soaked spots surrounded by chlorotic halos. Affected leaves turned yellow and readily detached. Two bacterial isolates, BC2642 and BC2923, were obtained from leaf lesions. The isolates were gram-negative, aerobic rods with a single flagellum. On peptone sucrose agar, colonies were yellow and raised with smooth margins. Starch and pectate hydrolysis tests were positive. Pathogenicity was confirmed by spraying cell suspensions containing 108 CFU/ml on seedlings of tomato (cv. Seokwang) and hot pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Daekwang) in a greenhouse maintained at 28 ± 2°C. The isolates induced similar symptoms as those originally observed on tomato and also caused spots and a marginal blight of leaves of pepper 2 weeks after inoculation. No symptoms were noted on the control plants sprayed with sterilized distilled water. The identity of bacteria reisolated from spots on leaves of both plants were confirmed by comparison of patterns of metabolite fingerprints with those from preliminary identification of the isolates using the Biolog Microbial Identification System, version 4.2 (Biolog Inc., Hayward, CA), and reinoculation of the seedlings as above. The 16S rRNA gene (rrs) and the intergenic spacer (IGS) located between the rrs and the 23S rRNA gene, and partial sequences of gyrB were sequenced to aid in the identification of the isolates (1--3). A 2,134-bp fragment of the rrs and IGS regions and 701-bp fragment of the gyrB region from isolates BC2642 and BC2923 were compared with sequences in GenBank. Sequences from both isolates shared 100% similarity to sequences of Xanthomonas perforans (Genbank Accession No. AF123091). On the basis of the sequences and other assays, the two isolates were identified as X. perforans. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bacterial spot of tomato caused by X. perforans in Korea. Nucleotide sequence data reported are available under Accession Nos. GQ461739 and GQ461740 for rrs and IGS of BC2642 and BC2923, respectively, and GQ368187 and GQ380567 for gyrB of BC2642 and BC2923, respectively. An outbreak of this disease in the greenhouse may be due to the use of tomato seeds harvested in foreign countries where spot is known to occur. The disease is expected to have a significant economic impact on tomato culture in Korea.
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