E. Kuleci and
B. Tunali, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Plant Protection, 55139, Kurupelit, Samsun, Turkey;
D. K. Berner and
C. A. Cavin, USDA/ARS, Foreign Disease-Weed Science Research Unit, 1301 Ditto Avenue, Fort Detrick, MD 21702; and
L. A. Castlebury, Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory, USDA/ARS, Room 318, 10300 Baltimore Ave., Bldg. 011A, BARC-WEST Beltsville, MD
Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.; Convolvulaceae) is a troublesome perennial weed found among many important crops in the world (1). In May of 2007, dying field bindweed plants were found along the edge of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) field between Bafra and Taflan, Turkey (41°34.395′N, 35°52.215′E). Lesions on leaves were irregular and variable in size and dark black with green margins. Severely diseased leaves were wilted or dead. Fruiting bodies were not evident on field-collected material. Diseased tissue was surface disinfested and placed on moist filter paper in petri plates. Numerous pycnidia with alpha conidia were observed after 2 weeks. A fungus, designated 24-6, was isolated from the diseased leaves. Cultures on potato dextrose agar (PDA) were floccose with white mycelia and small black stromata. Alpha conidia from pycnidia on inoculated plants were biguttulate, one celled, hyaline, oblong to ellipsoid, and 7.0 to 12.8 × 3.0 to 5.5 μm (mean 10.0 × 3.9 μm). Neither beta conidia nor the teleomorph, Diaporthe sp., were observed on diseased tissue or in cultures. Morphology was consistent with that of Phomopsis convolvuli Ormeno-Nunez, Reeleder & A.K. Watson (2). Alpha conidia were harvested from 12-day-old cultures grown on PDA by brushing the surface of the colonies with a small paint brush, suspending the conidia in sterile distilled water, and filtering through cheesecloth. The conidia were then resuspended in sterile distilled water plus 0.1% polysorbate 20 to arrive at a concentration of 107 conidia/ml. Stems and leaves of seven plants at the 3- to 5-leaf stage were spray inoculated with 10 ml per plant of this aqueous suspension. Inoculated plants and two noninoculated plants were placed in a dew chamber at 24°C in darkness and continuous dew. After 48 h, plants from the dew chamber were moved to a greenhouse bench. Disease severity was evaluated 1 week after inoculation with a rating system based on a scale from 0 to 4, in which 0 = no symptoms, 1 = 1 to 25% necrosis, 2 = 26 to 50% necrosis, 3 = 51 to 75% necrosis, and 4 = 76 to 100% necrosis (2). The average disease rating on inoculated plants was 3.75. No disease was observed on noninoculated plants. P. convolvuli was reisolated from all inoculated plants. Comparison of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and 2 sequences with available sequences of a vouchered P. convolvuli specimen (GenBank Nos. U11363, U11417; BPI 748009, FAU649) showed 192 of 193 and 176 of 179 identities, respectively, for the two regions. Nucleotide sequences for the ribosomal ITS regions (ITS 1 and 2, including 5.8S rDNA) were deposited in GenBank (Accession No. FJ710810), and a voucher specimen has been deposited with the U.S. National Fungus Collections (BPI 878927). To our knowledge, this is the second report in the world of leaf anthracnose on field bindweed caused by P. convolvuli. The first report was from Canada (3) of an isolate that was later patented for biological control of C. arvensis (4).
References: (1) L. Holm et al. The World's Worst Weeds. University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu, 1977. (2) J. Ormeno-Nunez, et al. Can. J. Bot. 66:2228, 1988. (3) J. Ormeno-Nunez et al. Plant Dis. 72:338, 1988. (4) A. K. Watson et al. U.S. Patent 5,212,086, 1993.