B. A. Pérez, INTA, IMYZA, Nicolás Repetto y De Los Reseros S/N°. (B1686WAA) Hurlingham, Buenos Aires, Argentina;
E. Martínez, AER El Bolsón, Río Negro, Argentina; and
F. Noetinger and
E. R. Wright, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. San Martín 4453 (C1417DSE) Buenos Aires, Argentina
In Argentina, hop downy mildew disease caused by Pseudoperonospora humuli first appeared in Alto Valle of Rio Negro and Neuquen (1957), Mar del Plata (1962), and El Bolson (1963) (1). The disease occurred in the hop (Humulus lupulus L.) planting areas of El Bolson (Rio Negro) and Lago Pueblo (Chubut) in 2002 and 2003. Surveys were conducted in 30 commercial hop fields from December 2002 to March 2003 to estimate disease incidence and susceptibility of cultivars planted in these fields. Hop fields were divided into five sections and 100 plants were randomly selected and assessed for the presence of disease. Symptoms that were observed in early spring included dark brown rootstocks and primary basal spikes (stunted plants with pale and curled leaves), which are characteristic of systemic infection. Later in the season, secondary infections were characterized by dark purple-to-black lesions on leaves, flowers, cones, and lateral and terminal spikes. Plant symptoms and fungal morphological markers (dichotomously branched sporangiophores; ellipsoid and papillate sporangia) agreed with hop downy mildew disease and the fungus P. humuli. Yield loss was estimated as the reduction in yield compared with the 2001--2002 season observed from five hop growers. On December 10, 70% of the hop fields had greater than 50% disease incidence and seven fields reached 100% incidence. The reduction in cone yield varied between 20 and 34% in fields without a rootstock fungicide treatment. One field with a rootstock fungicide treatment (mefenoxam, copper oxiclorure, phosphorous acid, copper sulfate, and fosetyl-Al) and regular fungicide applications had a 30% increase in cone yield compared with 2001--2002. Systemically infected plants were recorded for hop cvs. Bullion, Cascade, CEZ, GS-19, Hallertauer Mfr., Nugget, Spalt, and Traful. Previously, Cascade was rated as a resistant cultivar to the root systemic infection (1). To our knowledge, this is the first record of a hop downy mildew outbreak in Argentina during the last 30 years.
Reference: (1) L. Leskovar. El Lúpulo: Su Cultivo y Procesamiento. Hemisferio Sur. Buenos Aires, 1978.