Ondokuz Mayis University, Agricultural Faculty, Department Plant Protection, Kurupelit, 55139, Samsun, Turkey
Plant Protection Central Research Institute, Bagdat Str. No. 250 Yenimahalle, 06170, Ankara, Turkey
USDA-ARS, Systematic Botany and Mycology Lab, 10300 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705
USDA-ARS, Foreign Disease-Weed Science Research Unit, 1301 Ditto Ave., Fort Detrick, MD 21702
Tussilago farfara L. (“coltsfoot”, Asteraceae) is indigenous to Eurasia, including Turkey, but has been classified as a Class A noxious weed in North America. Plant pathogens are being sought as potential candidates for biological control of coltsfoot. A rust fungus, Coleosporium tussilaginis (Pers) Lev. has been reported to cause disease on T. farfara from Europe, Russia, and Japan (2). During August of 2001 and 2002, rust pustules were observed on coltsfoot leaves in Kizilcahamam, Ankara, Turkey. Diseased plant specimens with rust pustules were collected, examined microscopically, and compared with published descriptions (1) and specimens in the U.S. National Fungus Collections in Beltsville, MD. The causal agent was subsequently identified as the fungus Coleosporium tussilaginis (Pers.) Lév. on the basis of symptomatology and morphology of uredinial and telial stages such as: clustered, golden-orange, sub-epidermal, erumpent, uredinia approximately 1.0 × 2.0 mm in diameter on the abaxial surface, and corresponding achlorotic areas on the adaxial leaf surfaces; thick-walled (3.0 to 4.0 μm), pale orange, coarsely verrucose, variously shaped (mostly broadly ellipsoid or angular) urediniospores measuring 23.5 to 33.0 × 20.0 to 25.7 μm (average = 27.3 × 23.3 μm), with obscure and scattered germ pores; and orange-red telia on the abaxial leaf surfaces covered by a gelatinous apical layer enclosing orange-red, cylindrical to clavate teliospores measuring 50.0 to 80.0 × 18.0 to 28.0 μm. A voucher specimen of this material has been deposited in the U.S. National Fungus Collections (BPI 863516). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. tussilaginis rust on coltsfoot in Turkey.
References: (1) G. Deml et al. Phytopathol. Z 104:39, 1982. (2) D. F. Farr et al. Fungal Databases. USDA-ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory, Online publication. ARS, USDA, 2005.