The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is the most important pathogen of soybean, Glycine max, in North Carolina. Cultural practices are the most effective means of managing this pathogen because a majority of cultivars are susceptible to the races of this nematode that predominate in the state. Resistant and susceptible cultivars were evaluated in 14 H. glycines-infested fields from 1992 to 1999. Resistance in cvs. Hartwig and Delsoy 5710, and line S92-1603 derived from plant introduction (PI) 437654, was highly effective against all populations of H. glycines evaluated in these experiments. Numbers of cysts (cysts and white females) per three plants 28 days after planting and final egg population densities (Pf) were lower than on other cultivars evaluated. Cultivars with SCN resistance derived from PI 90763 were moderately resistant in many of the test fields, but cultivars with Peking-derived resistance were effective at only two locations. Some cultivars with resistance derived from PI 88788 were highly to moderately resistant to races 9 or 14 of SCN, but were not consistently effective against other populations. Hartwig and Delsoy 5710 had low SCN reproductive factors (Rf = egg density at harvest/mean egg density at planting for site) of 0.16 and 0.23 compared with an Rf of 1.9 and 2.19 on the susceptible cvs. Essex and Hutcheson, respectively. In contrast, the Rf on cultivars derived from Peking generally was greater than on susceptible cultivars. Resistant cvs. Hartwig and Delsoy 5710 generally yielded more than susceptible cultivars or cultivars derived from other sources of resistance. The initial inoculum level (Pi) was negatively correlated with soybean seed yield, but cysts 28 days after planting proved to be better at predicting seed yield than Pi. Due to the genetic diversity of H. glycines populations with regard to the ability to parasitize resistant cultivars, cultivars with resistance derived from PI 437654 or other genotypes are needed to manage this nematode in North Carolina.