Plant Protection Department, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Science and Research Campus, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14515-775, Tehran, Iran
Plant Virology Department, Plant Pests and Diseases Research Institute, P.O. Box 19395-1454, Tehran, Iran
Oilseed Research and Development Co., P.O. Box 15875-6676, Tehran, Iran
A survey was conducted to determine the incidence of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV), Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV), Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BlCMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV), Peanut mottle virus (PeMoV), Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), Tobacco streak virus (TSV), Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) on soybean (Glycine max) in Iran. Totals of 3,110 random and 1,225 symptomatic leaf samples were collected during the summers of 1999 and 2000 in five provinces of Iran, where commercial soybean is grown, and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using specific polyclonal antibodies. Serological diagnoses were confirmed by electron microscopy and host range studies. The highest virus incidence among the surveyed provinces was recorded in Mazandaran (18.6%), followed by Golestan (15.7%), Khuzestan (14.2%), Ardabil (13.9%), and Lorestan (13.5%). Incidence of viruses in decreasing order was SMV (13.3%), TSWV (5.4%), TRSV (4.2%), TSV (4.1%), PEMV (2.9%), BYMV (2.2%), ToRSV (2.1%), AlMV (1.3%), BCMV (0.8%), and CMV (0.6%). Additionally, 1.5% of collected leaf samples had positive reactions in ELISA with antiserum to TMV, indicating the possible infection of soybeans in Iran with a Tobamovirus that is related serologically to TMV. Of 195 leaves from plants showing soybean pod set failure syndrome (PSF) in Mazandaran and Lorestan, only 14 (7.2%) samples had viral infection. No correlation was observed between PSF and presence of the 13 viruses tested, suggesting the involvement of other viruses or factors in this syndrome. To investigate the presence of seed-borne viruses, including SMV, TRSV, ToRSV, and TSV, 7,830 soybean seeds were collected randomly at harvesting time from the major sites of soybean seed production located in Mazandaran and Golestan provinces. According to ELISA analyses of germinated seedlings, 7.1 and 8.9% of the seed samples from Golestan and Mazandaran provinces, respectively, transmitted either SMV, TRSV, ToRSV, or TSV through seed. We also showed that SMV and other seed transmissible viruses, as well as TSWV, usually are the most prevalent viruses in soybean fields in Iran. In this survey, natural occurrence of AlMV, BCMV, BlCMV, BYMV, CMV, PEMV, PeMoV, and TSWV was reported for the first time on soybeans in Iran.