Departamento de Sanidad Vegetal, Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 1004, Santiago, Chile
Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis 95616
Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (W. Gams, Crous. M.J. Wingfield & L. Mugnai) Crous & Gams (= Phaeoacremonium chlamydosporum) was isolated during the growing seasons of 2003-2004 from roots, trunks, and cordons of grapevines, including cvs. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot noir, Thompson seedless, Ruby seedless and root stock 3309C, and Kober 5BB, from 10 locations in V, VI, VII, and metropolitan regions of Chile. P. chlamydospora was isolated from 82% of samples from vines 2 to 18 years old that showed decline symptoms in the field. Isolates were identified on the basis of a previous description (1) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) rDNA sequences identical to those of P. chlamydospora isolated from Vitis vinifera (culture CBS 22995, GenBank Accession No. AF 197973). P. chlamydospora is established as a member of the petri and esca disease complex and as a pathogen of grapevines (2,3). Pathogenicity tests were completed by injecting into the pith of 50 single-node, rooted cuttings of Pinot noir and 3309C, approximately 20 μl of a 106 conidia per ml suspension, obtained from four isolates from Chile and one from California. Ten control cuttings of Pinot noir and 3309C were injected with an equal volume of sterile distilled water. Twenty-four weeks after inoculations, all P. chlamydospora-inoculated cuttings exhibited dark streaking of the vascular tissue extending 40 to 45 mm from the point of inoculation. The vascular streaking observed in inoculated plants was identical to symptoms observed in declining vines in the vineyard. No symptoms were observed in the controls. P. chlamydospora was isolated from the region of vascular streaking in 85% of inoculated cuttings. P. chlamydospora was not isolated from the water-treated controls. The reisolated P. chlamydospora was verified with means of morphological characters and polymerase chain reaction amplification with the species-specific primers (3). P. chlamydospora is widespread and readily isolated from declining grapevines in Chile and other grape growing regions of the world. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. chlamydospora from the cultivars cited above in Chile.
References: (1) M. Groenewald et al. Mycol. Res. 105:651, 2001. (2) L. sparapano et al. Phytopathol. Mediterr. (Suppl.)40:376, 2001. (3) S. Tegli et al. Phytopathol. Mediterr. 39:134, 2000.