The effects of Sclerotinia stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, on yield of soybean were evaluated in the field with two cultivars in maturity group 0. Plants were inoculated at two growth stages, R3 and R5, using two inoculation methods. Seed weight, seed and pod numbers, seed protein, and oil content were measured. The effects of disease on yield were variable. Disease resulted in significant seed weight loss, with reductions per diseased plant ranging from 18.8 to 38.6%. The estimated yield loss per 10% disease incidence ranged from 83.2 to 229.0 kg/ha, with an average loss of 136.6 kg/ha for four field experiments. A reduction in the number of seeds and pods per plant and seed oil content occurred in some, but not all, experiments. Seed protein was not affected. When disease reduced seed weight, seed and pod numbers, or oil content, there was no growth stage × treatment interaction in the experiments, indicating that inoculation at R5 compared with R3 had a similar effect on yield.