University of Akdeniz, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, 07050, Antalya, Turkey
University of Suleyman Demirel, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, 32260, Isparta, Turkey
University of Florida, Department of Plant Pathology, Gainesville 32611
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, causal agent of bacterial spot of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) was isolated from tomato and pepper plants in greenhouse production in the Province of Antalya, in southwestern Turkey. Disease incidence was less than 4% of plants observed in 2001 and ranged from 1 to 20% in 2002. Eleven seedling-producing companies and 26 greenhouses that produce tomato and pepper were surveyed during the rainy seasons of 2001 and 2002. The increase in disease incidence in 2002 is an indication that this disease is becoming more prevalent on tomato and pepper plants grown in greenhouses in southwestern Turkey. A gram-negative bacterium producing yellow-pigmented colonies on nutrient agar was consistently isolated from brown, circular spots on leaflets of tomato and sweet pepper seedlings. Five isolates were pathogenic on commercial cultivars of tomato and pepper when bacterial suspensions (108 CFU/ml) were infiltrated into the intercellular spaces of leaves to determine race by using procedures described by Bouzar et al. (1). All the isolates produced hypersensitive reaction responses on tomato genotype cv. Hawaii 7998 and pepper genotype cvs. 20 R and 30 R and were designated tomato race 1 pepper race 1 (T1P1) (1). Fatty acid analysis of the strains identified them as X. axonopodis vesicatoria with similarity index values of 0.872 to 0.933. In addition, the strains were tested with X. axonopodis vesicatoria-specific polymerase chain reaction primers (RST 2/3 and RST 9/10) (2). The isolates were determined to be X. axonopodis vesicatoria. Although bacterial spot of tomato has been suspected in Turkey for a number of years, to our knowledge, this is the first report of the bacterium on tomato.
References: (1) H. Bouzar et al. Phytopathology 84:663, 1994. (2) R. P. Leite, Jr. et al. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 60:1068, 1994.