Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, U.S.A.
Biological indexing for graft-transmissible pathogens of citrus in the presence of additional pathogens was investigated. The probability for symptom expression, the efficacy of the bio-indexing tests, and the number of citrus indicators required for pathogen detection were statistically evaluated. Multiple infections did not preclude symptom expression or reduce the diagnostic efficacy of the primary indexing hosts for Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), and Citrus tatter leaf virus (Apple stem grooving virus). Symptoms of Citrus vein enation virus (CVEV) and the diagnostic efficacy of Mexican lime were suppressed by the T30 group CTV isolates, but not by other CTV isolates tested. CPsV suppressed symptom expression and diagnostic efficiency of Dweet tangor and sweet orange for concave gum. The application of alternate bioassay hosts for indexing was also investigated. Dweet tangor, sweet orange, and Citrus excelsa are not typically used for bioindexing of CVEV, however, Dweet tangor and C. excelsa detected CVEV in single infections, whereas in sweet orange, CVEV was detected only when CPsV, concave gum, or citrus viroids were present. CTV was readily detected using the alternative indicator C. excelsa, whereas only shock reacting CPsV isolates were effectively indexed by Mexican lime.