Plant Virology Department, Plant Pests and Diseases Research Institute, P.O. Box 19395-1454, Tehran, Iran
Research and Science Campus, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14515-775, Tehran, Iran
During 2001, a survey was conducted in vineyards in northwestern Iran and the eastern and western provinces of Azarbaijan, Zanjan, and Qazvin to detect the presence of Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) and Grapevine leaf roll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3). From December 2001 through March 2002, 5,352 dormant stem cuttings were collected. A portion of all stem cuttings was callused, rooted, potted, and grown in a greenhouse. Each sample was tested for the presence of ArMV and GLRaV-3 with specific antisera (Bioreba, Basel, Switzerland). Extracts of bark scrapings were prepared from the remaining portion of the dormant cuttings. After bud break of rooted cuttings, leaf extracts were prepared by the method used by Rowhani et al. (2). Dormant bark and leaf extracts were used with double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Among the samples tested, ArMV and GLRaV-3 were found in 4.7 and 2.3% of the collection, respectively. Leaf extracts that had tested positive for ArMV using ELISA, were mechanically inoculated on the indicator host plants of Chenopodium amaranticolor, Cucumis sativus, and Petunia × hybrida. All plants developed local lesions that subsequently developed systemic chlorosis that is reported for ArMV. Biological assays confirmed the results of ArMV using ELISA. To confirm testing, a number of the samples that were found positive for GLRaV-3 in ELISA tests were tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique using previously described specific primers (1). The PCR reaction resulted in the specifically amplification of a 300-bp fragment of GLRaV-3 RNA. In cvs. White Keshmesh, Ghezel Ozum, Red Lal, Askari, and Red Kehsmesh, symptoms associated with GLRaV-3 were reduced growth with smaller leaves and shoots. By late summer, the leaves rolled downward and the interveinal areas of the leaves turned to red, while the principal veins remained green in cvs. Red Lal and Red Keshmesh. Symptoms associated with ArMV were reduced growth, shoots with short internodes, and leaf chlorosis and distortion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ArMV and GLRaV-3 from grapevines in Iran.
References: (1) A. Nassuth et al. J. Virol. Methods 90:37, 2000. (2) A. Rowhani et al. Plant Dis. 81:799, 1997.