Arid Land Research Center, Tottori University, Hamasaka, 1390, Tottori 680-0001, Japan
Crop Protection Center, Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani, Sudan
Arid Land Research Center, Tottori University, Hamasaka 1390, Tottori 680-0001
Confidor, an imidacloprid insecticide, was used in two applications at four rates (47.6, 71.4, 95.2, and 119 g a.i./ha) for indirectly controlling Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in field plantings of tomato. This spray regimen was compared with standard applications of cypermethrins at 10- to 15-day intervals throughout the growing season. In three field trials, a combination of integrated pest management (IPM) practices and two applications of Confidor at the two highest rates immediately after planting and 6 weeks later, protected tomato plants against the disease until 12 weeks after sowing. All rates of Confidor reduced disease incidence compared with standard chemical control applied in an integrated strategy, and quantitative efficacy increased with increase of insecticide rate. In the three seasons, the mean incidence of TYLCV 12 weeks after sowing was 42.7% in plots not adopting IPM compared with 15.7% in those that did. Disease incidence was reduced by Confidor treatments to 2.2 to 17%. Confidor-treated plots consistently had higher yields than control plots, and the yields decreased with the decrease in the rate of Confidor application. Confidor offers several advantages over standard applications of cypermethrins to control TYLCV. When applied immediately after planting, its long-lasting systemic activity protected the crop against the disease during early stages of growth. In addition, it reduced the number of sprays and increased tomato yield.