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Seed Transmission of Cylindrocladium parasiticum in Peanut

April 2001 , Volume 85 , Number  4
Pages  362 - 370

B. L. Randall-Schadel , Seed Pathologist, Plant Industry Division, North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Raleigh 27611-7647 ; and J. E. Bailey , Professor , and M. K. Beute , Professor Emeritus, Department of Plant Pathology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27695-7616

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Accepted for publication 20 December 2000.

Seedborne Cylindrocladium parasiticum has been reported in peanuts and the possibility of seed transmission postulated; however, seed transmission has not been documented. Cinnamon brown speckles on peanut testae were correlated with isolation of C. parasiticum. Microscopy indicated that seed were colonized by cinnamon brown colored hyphae and microsclerotia interspersed in and on lightened areas of testa. Speckled seed from commercial seed lots (cultivars NC 7, NC 10C) were planted, with or without a chemical seed treatment (1992, captan + carboxin + dicloran [45:18:15% of product]; 1993 to 1995, captan + PCNB + carboxin [45:15:10% of product]), in fumigated fields with no history of peanut production. Asymptomatic seed from noninfested seed lots (cultivar NC-V 11 or NC 7) were checks for soilborne inoculum. C. parasiticum was isolated from all symptomatic seed lots prior to planting (percentage ranged from 4 to 45%) but was not isolated from asymptomatic seed. Seed transmission occurred from seed both with chemical seed treatment (0.25 to 2.75%) and without seed treatment (0.25 to 6.0%), but not in all years. Asymptomatic seed planted 2.5 cm from speckled seed increased the number of plants with Cylindrocladium black rot from two- to sixfold, illustrating the ability of disease to spread from colonized seed to uninfected plants. It was concluded that seed transmission of C. parasiticum is an important means by which this disease is spread within the seed industry.

Additional keywords: Calonectria crotalariae, Calonectria ilicicola, Cylindrocladium crotalariae, groundnut, metam sodium

© 2001 The American Phytopathological Society