Plant Pathology Division, Khumaltar, Nepal
Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Japan
Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary is an important disease of potato and tomato that occurs annually in the hills and occasionally in the terai (plain) of Nepal. In 1996 and 1997, each year, 50 samples of late blight-infected potato and tomato leaves were collected from the hill and terai areas. The pathogen was cultured on Rye A agar. Each isolate was paired on clear V8 agar with reference isolates DN111 (A1 mating type) and DN107 (A2 mating type) received from Hokkaido University, Japan, and examined for oospore formation after 10 to 15 days of incubation at 20°C. The proportion of A2 isolates was 6% in 1996 and 42% in 1997. The A2 isolates were mainly from the high hills (2,000 to 2,500 m) where local and Andean types of potatoes are grown. Analysis of genotypes of isolates at the glucosephosphate isomerase (GPI-1), malic enzyme (ME), and peptidase (PEP-1) (1,2) isozyme loci revealed genetic diversity between A1 and A2 isolates. A1 isolates from potato were either homozygous (100/100) or heterozygous (86/100) for GPI-1, whereas all A1 isolates from tomato were heterozygous (86/100). All A1 isolates were homozygous (100/100) at the ME locus and heterozygous (92/100) at the PEP-1 locus. A2 isolates were homozygous (100/100) at all isozyme loci. The results show that both A1 and A2 mating types of P. infestans are present in Nepal, and that they display different isozyme genotypes. It is speculated that the A1 type may have migrated with potatoes from Europe while the A2 type may have been introduced with Andean potatoes from Latin America more recently. The simultaneous occurrence of both mating types may allow the fungus to increase its pathogenic diversity and to survive by means of oospores.
References: (1) A. A. Mosa et al. Plant Pathol. 42:26, 1993. (2) P. W. Tooley et al. J. Hered. 76:431, 1985.