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Spatial Distribution of Armillaria mellea in Pear Orchards

November 1998 , Volume 82 , Number  11
Pages  1,226 - 1,231

D. M. Rizzo and E. C. Whiting , Department of Plant Pathology, One Shields Ave., University of California, Davis 95616 ; and R. B. Elkins , University of California Cooperative Extension, 883 Lakeport Blvd., Lakeport 95453

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Accepted for publication 28 July 1998.

Pears have traditionally been considered to be highly resistant to Armillaria root disease (causal agent: Armillaria mellea). In recent years, however, the incidence of Armillaria root disease in pears has increased in California. To determine the spatial distribution of Armillaria root disease in the field, a total of 156 isolates of Armillaria were collected from dead and dying pear trees located within two orchards in Lake County. All isolates from these two orchards, as well as from an additional 10 pear orchards, were identified as Armillaria mellea sensu stricto. Based on pairings among 102 Armillaria isolates, four somatic incompatibility groups (SIGs) were identified at orchard 1. Three of the four SIGs at this site were over 100 m in length; the largest SIG was at least 200 m in length. Pairings among 54 isolates identified five SIGs at orchard 2. The SIGs at orchard 2 were generally smaller than those detected at orchard 1 and ranged from 20 to 60 m in length. The size of the SIGs points toward long-term establishment of the fungus on the two sites, most likely predating the establishment of the pear orchards. Extensive root excavations of 19 trees indicated that the primary means of secondary spread of Armillaria was via rhizomorphs, as opposed to root-to-root contact.

© 1998 The American Phytopathological Society