Studies were conducted to compare existing and potential citrus rootstocks with respect to resistance to root rot and gummosis caused by Phytophthora citrophthora and P. parasitica in greenhouse and growth chamber experiments and horticultural performance under simulated nursery conditions. Depending upon rootstock and experiment, mean root weights resulting from inoculation with P. citrophthora were 27 to 96% lower than the comparable controls. In similar experiments with the same rootstocks, inoculation with P. parasitica resulted in root weights that were 38 to 95% less than weights of the noninoculated controls. During 1994 or 1995, mean root weight reduction compared with noninoculated plants among Citrus macrophylla, rough lemon, C. volkameriana, and Sunki mandarin × Flying Dragon trifoliate (62-109-19) attributable to P. citrophthora and mean root weight reduction among C. macrophylla, C. volkameriana, rough lemon, Sacaton citrumelo, Sunki mandarin × Flying Dragon trifoliate (62-109-19), African shaddock × Rubidoux trifoliate, and Shekwasha mandarin × English trifoliate attributable to P. parasitica were significantly less than those recorded for all other tested rootstocks. Rootstocks that sustained a low percentage of root weight reduction generally experienced a low percentage of shoot weight reduction and survived longer as well. In evaluation of resistance to gummosis, depending on rootstock and experiment, the mean length of stem lesions caused by P. citrophthora on rootstocks ranged from 0.2 to 25.0 mm, whereas values for P. parasitica ranged from 0.2 to 18.5 mm. Stem lesions smaller than 5 mm in length were recorded for 21 and 14 of 36 different rootstocks inoculated with P. citrophthora and P. parasitica, respectively. On the other hand, P. citrophthora and P. parasitica caused stem lesions of at least 10 mm in length on 8 and 16 citrus rootstocks, respectively. Desirable nursery characteristics, including vigorous growth, minimal branching, and high leaf chlorophyll content, were demonstrated most prominently by Gomiri rough lemon, C. volkameriana, and Benton citrange, and to a lesser degree by some other rootstocks. Possible factors that could account for inconsistent classification of some citrus rootstocks as susceptible or resistant to Phytophthora root rot and gummosis are discussed.