INRA, Station de Pathologie Végétale, B.P. 94, 84143 Montfavet Cedex, France
This study was conducted to determine the effect of two potyviruses, onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) and leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), on the symptoms, growth, and potential yield loss of garlic (Allium sativum). For 2 consecutive years, the impact on leaf length, pseudostem diameter, and bulb weight was evaluated after mechanical inoculation of cultivars Messidrome, Germidour, and Printanor, the three main garlic cultivars grown in France. The reduction in bulb weight due to OYDV ranged from 39% for Germidour to about 60% for the two other cultivars. For LYSV, the reduction in bulb weight was less on Messidrome (17%) and Germidour (26%) than on Printanor (54%). Coinfection with both viruses further reduced growth and bulb weight. When cloves originating from bulbs infected by each virus alone or a mixture of both viruses were planted, results indicated that such chronic infection induced further yield reduction. An assay designed to evaluate the role of LYSV inoculation date on yield revealed that yield losses were the lowest for late-season infections. However, yield loss was greater than 30% when the inoculation was performed at the end of April, the time when natural contamination generally occurs in southern France. A comparison of the impact of mixed infections of OYDV and LYSV from different origins suggested that the isolates did not differ significantly in their effects on yield loss.