USDA-ARS, Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 14853
Entomology Department, Clemson University, Blackville, South Carolina
Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University
Entomology Department, Clemson University
Barley yellow dwarf is recognized as an important disease problem in winter wheat production in the southeastern United States, but there is relatively little known about the ecology and epidemiology of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) in this region. From 1991 to 1993, and in 1996 and 1997, winter wheat was sampled for BYDV throughout the principal wheat production areas in South Carolina. In addition, in 1997, a small number of samples were collected from fields in North Carolina and Kentucky. Plant samples were assayed to determine the BYDV serotype and, subsequently, coat protein sequences of isolates within the same serotype were compared using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Representative BYDV isolates from South Carolina and type isolates from New York were compared in aphid transmission experiments using aphid species collected from South Carolina and laboratory colonies maintained in New York. The predominant BYDV serotype in South Carolina (in all years) was PAV, accounting for 94% of the total BYDV-infected samples analyzed. The RPV serotypes were more abundant in samples collected from western North Carolina and Kentucky. PAV isolates from all regions were identical to the New York BYDV-PAV in terms of serology and restriction fragment patterns. Furthermore, the aphid transmission phenotypes were similar for South Carolina and New York BYDV isolates. The predominant aphids colonizing winter wheat in South Carolina included Schizaphis graminum, Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis, R. padi, and Sitobion avenea. The South Carolina clones of R. padi and S. avenae were similar to the New York laboratory clones in their abilities to transmit various BYDV isolates from New York and South Carolina. In contrast to the New York clone of Schizaphis graminum that can vector SGV, PAV, and RPV, the S. graminum clone from South Carolina was not a vector of any BYDV serotype tested. R. rufiabdominalis was found to be an efficient vector of PAV, RPV, and RMV isolates, but did not transmit MAV or SGV.