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Host Plant Resistance Against Tomato spotted wilt virus in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and Its Impact on Susceptibility to the Virus, Virus Population Genetics, and Vector Feeding Behavior and Survival

February 2014 , Volume 104 , Number  2
Pages  202 - 210

Sivamani Sundaraj, Rajagopalbabu Srinivasan, Albert K. Culbreath, David G. Riley, and Hanu R. Pappu

First, second, and fourth authors: Department of Entomology, and third author: Department of Plant Pathology, University of Georgia, Tifton 31793; and fifth author: Department of Plant Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman 99164.

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Accepted for publication 30 August 2013.

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) severely affects peanut production in the southeastern United States. Breeding efforts over the last three decades resulted in the release of numerous peanut genotypes with field resistance to TSWV. The degree of field resistance in these genotypes has steadily increased over time, with recently released genotypes exhibiting a higher degree of field resistance than older genotypes. However, most new genotypes have never been evaluated in the greenhouse or laboratory against TSWV or thrips, and the mechanism of resistance is unknown. In this study, TSWV-resistant and -susceptible genotypes were subjected to TSWV mechanical inoculation. The incidence of TSWV infection was 71.7 to 87.2%. Estimation of TSWV nucleocapsid (N) gene copies did not reveal significant differences between resistant and susceptible genotypes. Parsimony and principal component analyses of N gene nucleotide sequences revealed inconsistent differences between virus isolates collected from resistant and susceptible genotypes and between old (collected in 1998) and new (2010) isolates. Amino acid sequence analyses indicated consistent differences between old and new isolates. In addition, we found evidence for overabundance of nonsynonymous substitutions. However, there was no evidence for positive selection. Purifying selection, population expansion, and differentiation seem to have influenced the TSWV populations temporally rather than positive selection induced by host resistance. Choice and no-choice tests indicated that resistant and susceptible genotypes differentially affected thrips feeding and survival. Thrips feeding and survival were suppressed on some resistant genotypes compared with susceptible genotypes. These findings reveal how TSWV resistance in peanut could influence evolution, epidemiology, and management of TSWV.

Additional keywords:Frankliniella fusca, tobacco thrips, Tospovirus.

© 2014 The American Phytopathological Society