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Identification of a New Enamovirus Associated with Citrus Vein Enation Disease by Deep Sequencing of Small RNAs

October 2013 , Volume 103 , Number  10
Pages  1,077 - 1,086

Mari Carmen Vives, Karelia Velázquez, José Antonio Pina, Pedro Moreno, José Guerri, and Luis Navarro

Centro de Protección Vegetal y Biotecnología, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), Ctra. Moncada-Náquera Km. 4.5, Moncada, 46113 Valencia, Spain

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Accepted for publication 23 May 2013.

To identify the causal agent of citrus vein enation disease, we examined by deep sequencing (Solexa-Illumina) the small RNA (sRNA) fraction from infected and healthy Etrog citron plants. Our results showed that virus-derived sRNAs (vsRNAs): (i) represent about 14.21% of the total sRNA population, (ii) are predominantly of 21 and 24 nucleotides with a biased distribution of their 5′ nucleotide and with a clear prevalence of those of (+) polarity, and (iii) derive from all the viral genome, although a prominent hotspot is present at a 5′-proximal region. Contigs assembled from vsRNAs showed similarity with luteovirus sequences, particularly with Pea enation mosaic virus, the type member of the genus Enamovirus. The genomic RNA (gRNA) sequence of a new virus, provisionally named Citrus vein enation virus (CVEV), was completed and characterized. The CVEV gRNA was found to be single-stranded, positive-sense, with a size of 5,983 nucleotides and five open reading frames. Phylogenetic comparisons based on amino acid signatures of the RNA polymerase and the coat protein clearly classifies CVEV within the genus Enamovirus. Dot-blot hybridization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests were developed to detect CVEV in plants affected by vein enation disease. CVEV detection by these methods has already been adopted for use in the Spanish citrus quarantine, sanitation, and certification programs.

Additional keywords: cDNA probes, Luteoviridae, molecular hybridization, virus detection.

© 2013 The American Phytopathological Society