B. Poinssot, and
First author: Université Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5557, USC INRA 1364, Ecologie Microbienne, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, France; and second, third, fourth, and fifth authors: Université de Bourgogne, UMR 1347 Agroécologie, 17 rue Sully, BP 86510, F-21000 Dijon, France.
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Accepted for publication 22 April 2013.
Plant diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes result in significant economic losses every year. Although phylogenetically distant, these organisms share many common features during infection. We identified genes in the oomycete Plasmopara viticola that are potentially involved in pathogenesis in grapevine by using fungal databases and degenerate primers. Fragments of P. viticola genes encoding NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (PvNuo), laccase (PvLac), and invertase (PvInv) were obtained. PvNuo was overexpressed at 2 days postinoculation (dpi), during the development of the first hyphal structures and haustoria. PvLac was overexpressed at 5 dpi when genes related to pterostilbene biosynthesis were induced in grapevine. Transcript level for PvInv increased between 1 and 4 dpi before reaching a plateau. These results might suggest a finely tuned strategy of infection depending on nutrition and plant response. Phylogenetic analyses of PvNuo showed that P. viticola clustered with other oomycetes and was associated with brown algae and diatoms, forming a typical Straminipila clade. Based on the comparison of available sequences for laccases and invertases, the group formed by P. viticola and other oomycetes tended to be more closely related to Opisthokonta than to Straminipila. Convergent evolution or horizontal gene transfer could explain the presence of fungus-like genes in P. viticola.
© 2013 The American Phytopathological Society