M. De Backer,
K. F. Pedley,
E. Van Bockstaele,
K. Heungens, and
T. van der Lee
First, fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh authors: Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Plant Sciences Unit, Burg. Van Gansberghelaan 96 bus 2, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium; first and sixth authors: Ghent University, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Department of Plant Production, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent; second and eighth authors: Plant Research International, Biointeractions and Plant Health, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708PB Wageningen; and third author: United States Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service, Foreign Disease-Weed Science Research Unit, 1301 Ditto Ave., Ft. Detrick, MD 21702.
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Accepted for publication 6 June 2013.
The obligate biotrophic pathogen Puccinia horiana is the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust. Although P. horiana is a quarantine organism, it has been able to spread to most chrysanthemum-producing regions in the world since the 1960s; however, the transfer routes are largely obscure. An extremely low level of allelic diversity was observed in a geographically diverse set of eight isolates using complexity reduction of polymorphic sequences (CRoPS) technology. Only 184 of the 16,196 contigs (1.1%) showed one or more single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Thirty-two SNPs and one simple-sequence repeat were translated into molecular markers and used to genotype 45 isolates originating from North and South America, Asia, and Europe. In most cases, phylogenetic clustering was related to geographic origin, indicating local establishment. The European isolates mostly grouped in two major populations that may relate to the two historic introductions previously reported. However, evidence of recent geographic transfer was also observed, including transfer events between Europe and South America and between Southeast Asia and Europe. In contrast with the presumed clonal propagation of this microcyclic rust, strong indications of marker recombination were observed, presumably as a result of anastomosis, karyogamy, and somatic meiosis. Recombination and transfer also explain the geographic dispersal of specific markers. A near-to-significant correlation between the genotypic data and previously obtained pathotype data was observed and one marker was associated with the most virulent pathotype group. In combination with a fast SNP detection method, the markers presented here will be helpful tools to further elucidate the transfer pathways and local survival of this pathogen.
© 2013 The American Phytopathological Society