Marco A. Mammella,
Frank N. Martin,
Santa O. Cacciola,
Michael D. Coffey,
Roberto Faedda, and
First and sixth authors: Dipartimento di Agraria, Università degli Studi Mediterranea, Località Feo di Vito, 89122 Reggio Calabria, Italy; second author: United States Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service, 1636 East Alisal Street, Salinas, CA 93905; third and fifth authors: Dipartimento di Gestione dei Sistemi Agroalimentari e Ambientali, Università degli Studi, Via Santa Sofia, 100, 95123 Catania, Italy; and fourth author: Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, 1129 Batchelor Hall, University of California, Riverside 92521.
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Accepted for publication 25 January 2013.
Genetic variation within the heterothallic cosmopolitan plant pathogen Phytophthora nicotianae was determined in 96 isolates from a wide range of hosts and geographic locations by characterizing four mitochondrial (10% of the genome) and three nuclear loci. In all, 52 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (an average of 1 every 58 bp) and 313 sites with gaps representing 5,450 bases enabled the identification of 50 different multilocus mitochondrial haplotypes. Similarly, 24 SNPs (an average of 1 every 69 bp), with heterozygosity observed at each locus, were observed in three nuclear regions (hyp, scp, and β-tub) differentiating 40 multilocus nuclear genotypes. Both mitochondrial and nuclear markers revealed a high level of dispersal of isolates and an inconsistent geographic structuring of populations. However, a specific association was observed for host of origin and genetic grouping with both nuclear and mitochondrial sequences. In particular, the majority of citrus isolates from Italy, California, Florida, Syria, Albania, and the Philippines clustered in the same mitochondrial group and shared at least one nuclear allele. A similar association was also observed for isolates recovered from Nicotiana and Solanum spp. The present study suggests an important role of nursery populations in increasing genetic recombination within the species and the existence of extensive phenomena of migration of isolates that have been likely spread worldwide with infected plant material.
© 2013 The American Phytopathological Society