P. H. F. Hobbelen,
N. D. Paveley,
R. P. Oliver, and
F. van den Bosch
First and fourth authors: Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 2JQ, United Kingdom; second author: ADAS UK Ltd., High Mowthorpe, Duggleby, Malton, North Yorkshire, YO17 8BP, United Kingdom; and third author: Curtin University, Australian Centre for Necrotrophic Fungal Pathogens, Department of Environment & Agriculture, Bentley, WA 6845, Australia.
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Accepted for publication 29 January 2013.
A fungicide resistance model (reported and tested previously) was amended to describe the development of resistance in Mycosphaerella graminicola populations in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) crops in two sets of fields, connected by spore dispersal. The model was used to evaluate the usefulness of concurrent, alternating, or mixture use of two high-resistance-risk fungicides as resistance management strategies. We determined the effect on the usefulness of each strategy of (i) fitness costs of resistance, (ii) partial resistance to fungicides, (iii) differences in the dose-response curves and decay rates between fungicides, and (iv) different frequencies of the double-resistant strain at the start of a treatment strategy. Parameter values for the quinine outside inhibitor pyraclostrobin were used to represent two fungicides with differing modes of action. The effectiveness of each strategy was quantified as the maximum number of growing seasons that disease was effectively controlled in both sets of fields. For all scenarios, the maximum effective lives achieved by the use of the strategies were in the order mixtures ≥ alternation ≥ concurrent use. Mixtures were of particular benefit where the pathogen strain resistant to both modes of action incurred a fitness penalty or was present at a low initial frequency.
© 2013 The American Phytopathological Society