Jean Ristaino, and
First author: Forest Research Institute, Department of Forest Protection, Sękocin Stary, Braci Leśnej 3, 05-090 Raszyn, Poland; second, third, fourth, and sixth authors: Plant Research International, P.O. Box 69, Wageningen, The Netherlands; and fifth author: Department of Plant Pathology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.
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Accepted for publication 13 February 2012.
The genus Phytophthora consists of many species that cause important diseases in ornamental, agronomic, and forest ecosystems worldwide. Molecular methods have been developed for detection and identification of one or several species of Phytophthora in single or multiplex reactions. In this article, we describe a padlock probe (PLP)-based multiplex method of detection and identification for many Phytophthora spp. simultaneously. A generic TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assay, which detects all known Phytophthora spp., is conducted first, followed by a species-specific PLP ligation. A 96-well-based microarray platform with colorimetric readout is used to detect and identify the different Phytophthora spp. PLPs are long oligonucleotides containing target complementary sequence regions at both their 5′ and 3′ ends which can be ligated on the target into a circular molecule. The ligation is point mutation specific; therefore, closely related sequences can be differentiated. This circular molecule can then be detected on a microarray. We developed 23 PLPs to economically important Phytophthora spp. based upon internal transcribed spacer-1 sequence differences between individual Phytophthora spp. Tests on genomic DNA of many Phytophthora isolates and DNA from environmental samples showed the specificity and utility of PLPs for Phytophthora diagnostics.
© 2012 The American Phytopathological Society