First author: Comité Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne, 5 rue Henri Martin, BP 135, F-51200 Epernay, France; and first, second, third, and fourth authors: INRA, UMR1131 Santé de la Vigne et Qualité du Vin, F-68000 Colmar, France, and Université de Strasbourg, UMR1131, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
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Accepted for publication 19 March 2012.
Grapevine leafroll disease is caused by grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaVs). These viruses are common in vineyards worldwide and often associated with vitiviruses that are involved in the rugose wood complex of grapevine. Ten mealybug species are known as vectors of one or several of these grapevine viruses, including the apple mealybug Phenacoccus aceris which is widespread in Holarctic regions and able to transmit Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-1 and -3 (GLRaV-1 and -3). Our aim was to characterize the transmission features of leafroll viruses by Phenacoccus aceris in order to better understand the contribution of this mealybug to leafroll epidemics. Results showed that Phenacoccus aceris is able to transmit GLRaV-1, -3, -4, -5, -6, and -9 to grapevine but not GLRaV-7. This is the first report of GLRaV-6 transmission by a mealybug. Also, for the first time it was shown that Phenacoccus aceris could vector vitiviruses Grapevine virus A (GVA) and Grapevine virus B (GVB). First instar nymphs were the most efficient stage in transmitting GLRaV-1, -3, and GVA. This research sheds light on the transmission biology of grapevine viruses by Phenacoccus aceris and represents a step forward to leafroll disease management.
© 2012 The American Phytopathological Society