David W. Ramming,
Joseph L. Smilanick,
Dennis A. Margosan,
Michael G. Milgroom, and
First, second, third, and fourth authors: United States Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Parlier, CA 93648-9757; fifth, seventh, and tenth authors: USDA-ARS Grape Genetics Research Unit, Geneva, NY 14456; sixth author: Department of Horticultural Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY 14456; and eighth and ninth authors: Department of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
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Accepted for publication 17 August 2011.
Race-specific resistance against powdery mildews is well documented in small grains but, in other crops such as grapevine, controlled analysis of host–pathogen interactions on resistant plants is uncommon. In the current study, we attempted to confirm powdery mildew resistance phenotypes through vineyard, greenhouse, and in vitro inoculations for test cross-mapping populations for two resistance sources: (i) a complex hybrid breeding line, ‘Bloodworth 81-107-11', of at least Vitis rotundifolia, V. vinifera, V. berlandieri, V. rupestris, V. labrusca, and V. aestivalis background; and (ii) Vitis hybrid ‘Tamiami’ of V. aestivalis and V. vinifera origin. Statistical analysis of vineyard resistance data suggested the segregation of two and three race-specific resistance genes from the two sources, respectively. However, in each population, some resistant progeny were susceptible in greenhouse or in vitro screens, which suggested the presence of Erysiphe necator isolates virulent on progeny segregating for one or more resistance genes. Controlled inoculation of resistant and susceptible progeny with a diverse set of E. necator isolates clearly demonstrated the presence of fungal races differentially interacting with race-specific resistance genes, providing proof of race specificity in the grape powdery mildew pathosystem. Consistent with known race-specific resistance mechanisms, both resistance sources were characterized by programmed cell death of host epidermal cells under appressoria, which arrested or slowed hyphal growth; this response was also accompanied by collapse of conidia, germ tubes, appressoria, and secondary hyphae. The observation of prevalent isolates virulent on progeny with multiple race-specific resistance genes before resistance gene deployment has implications for grape breeding strategies. We suggest that grape breeders should characterize the mechanisms of resistance and pyramid multiple resistance genes with different mechanisms for improved durability.
This article is in the public domain and not copyrightable. It may be freely reprinted with customary crediting of the source. The American Phytopathological Society, 2012.