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Multilocus Sequence Typing of Pseudomonas syringae Sensu Lato Confirms Previously Described Genomospecies and Permits Rapid Identification of P. syringae pv. coriandricola and P. syringae pv. apii Causing Bacterial Leaf Spot on Parsley

July 2011 , Volume 101 , Number  7
Pages  847 - 858

Carolee T. Bull, Christopher R. Clarke, Rongman Cai, Boris A. Vinatzer, Teresa M. Jardini, and Steven T. Koike

First and fifth authors: United States Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service, 1636 E. Alisal St., Salinas, CA 93905; second, third, and fourth authors: Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science Department, Latham Hall, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg 24061; and sixth author: University of California Cooperative Extension, Salinas 93901.

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Accepted for publication 7 February 2011.

Since 2002, severe leaf spotting on parsley (Petroselinum crispum) has occurred in Monterey County, CA. Either of two different pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato were isolated from diseased leaves from eight distinct outbreaks and once from the same outbreak. Fragment analysis of DNA amplified between repetitive sequence polymerase chain reaction; 16S rDNA sequence analysis; and biochemical, physiological, and host range tests identified the pathogens as Pseudomonas syringae pv. apii and P. syringae pv. coriandricola. Koch's postulates were completed for the isolates from parsley, and host range tests with parsley isolates and pathotype strains demonstrated that P. syringae pv. apii and P. syringae pv. coriandricola cause leaf spot diseases on parsley, celery, and coriander or cilantro. In a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approach, four housekeeping gene fragments were sequenced from 10 strains isolated from parsley and 56 pathotype strains of P. syringae. Allele sequences were uploaded to the Plant-Associated Microbes Database and a phylogenetic tree was built based on concatenated sequences. Tree topology directly corresponded to P. syringae genomospecies and P. syringae pv. apii was allocated appropriately to genomospecies 3. This is the first demonstration that MLST can accurately allocate new pathogens directly to P. syringae sensu lato genomospecies. According to MLST, P. syringae pv. coriandricola is a member of genomospecies 9, P. cannabina. In a blind test, both P. syringae pv. coriandricola and P. syringae pv. apii isolates from parsley were correctly identified to pathovar. In both cases, MLST described diversity within each pathovar that was previously unknown.

Additional keywords: Apiaceae, Apium graveolens, Coriandrum sativum, DNA/DNA hybridization, species concept.

This article is in the public domain and not copyrightable. It may be freely reprinted with customary crediting of the source. The American Phytopathological Society, 2011.