Dmitri V. Mavrodi,
Olga V. Mavrodi,
Robert F. Bonsall,
James A. Parejko,
Timothy C. Paulitz,
Linda S. Thomashow,
David M. Weller, and
First and tenth authors: Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Engineering Center of Bioresource Pesticide in Jiangsu Province, Key Laboratory of Monitoring and Management of Crop Diseases and Pest Insects, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing, 210095, China; second, third, and fourth authors: Department of Plant Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman 99164-6430; fifth author: School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, Pullman 99164-7520; sixth, seventh, and ninth authors: United States Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service, Root Disease and Biological Control Research Unit, Pullman, WA, 99163-6430; and eighth author: Biology Institute of Shandong Academy of Sciences, 19 Keyuan Road, Jinan, 250014, China.
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Accepted for publication 4 August 2011.
Take-all disease of wheat caused by the soilborne fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici is one of the most important root diseases of wheat worldwide. Bacteria were isolated from winter wheat from irrigated and rainfed fields in Hebei and Jiangsu provinces in China, respectively. Samples from rhizosphere soil, roots, stems, and leaves were plated onto King's medium B agar and 553 isolates were selected. On the basis of in vitro tests, 105 isolates (19% of the total) inhibited G. graminis var. tritici and all were identified as Pseudomonas spp. by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. Based on biocontrol assays, 13 strains were selected for further analysis. All of them aggressively colonized the rhizosphere of wheat and suppressed take-all. Of the 13 strains, 3 (HC9-07, HC13-07, and JC14-07, all stem endophytes) had genes for the biosynthesis of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) but none had genes for the production of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyoluteorin, or pyrrolnitrin. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of 2-day-old cultures confirmed that HC9-07, HC13-07, and JC14-07 produced PCA but no other phenazines were detected. HPLC quantitative time-of-flight 2 mass-spectrometry analysis of extracts from roots of spring wheat colonized by HC9-07, HC13-07, or Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79 demonstrated that all three strains produced PCA in the rhizosphere. Loss of PCA production by strain HC9-07 resulted in a loss of biocontrol activity. Analysis of DNA sequences within the key phenazine biosynthesis gene phzF and of 16S rDNA indicated that strains HC9-07, HC13-07, and JC14-07 were similar to the well-described PCA producer P. fluorescens 2-79. This is the first report of 2-79-like bacteria being isolated from Asia.
This article is in the public domain and not copyrightable. It may be freely reprinted with customary crediting of the source. The American Phytopathological Society, 2011.