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Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 Occurs as Genetically Diverse Populations

December 2011 , Volume 101 , Number  12
Pages  1,446 - 1,456

Olufemi J. Alabi, Maher Al Rwahnih, Gandhi Karthikeyan, Sudarsana Poojari, Marc Fuchs, Adib Rowhani, and Rayapati A. Naidu

First, third, fourth, and seventh authors: Department of Plant Pathology, Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center, Washington State University, Prosser 99350; second and sixth authors: Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis 95616; and fifth author: Department of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, Cornell University, Geneva, NY 14456.

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Accepted for publication 25 July 2011.

The genetic diversity of 34 isolates of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1) from different wine, table, and ornamental grape cultivars in California, New York, and Washington States in the United States was investigated. Segments of the heat-shock protein 70 homolog (HSP70h) gene, coat protein (CP) gene, coat protein duplicate 2 (CPd2) gene, and open reading frame 9 (p24) were amplified by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, cloned, and sequenced. A pairwise comparison of nucleotide sequences revealed intra- and interisolate sequence diversity, with CPd2 and HSP70h being the most and the least divergent, respectively, among the four genomic regions studied. The normalized values for the ratio of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site to synonymous substitutions per synonymous site indicated different purifying selection pressures acting on each of the four genomic regions, with the CP and CPd2 being subjected to the strongest and weakest functional constraints, respectively. A global phylogenetic analysis of sequences from the four genomic regions revealed segregation of GLRaV-1 isolates into three major clades and a lack of clearly defined clustering by geographical origin. In contrast, only two lineages were apparent when the CP and CPd2 gene sequences were used in phylogenetic analyses. Putative recombination events were revealed among the HSP70h, CP, and p24 sequences. The genetic landscape of GLRaV-1 populations presented in this study provides a foundation for better understanding of the epidemiology of grapevine leafroll disease across grape-growing regions in the United States. In addition, this study will benefit grape clean plant programs across the country in improving the sanitary status of planting materials provided to nurseries and grape growers.

© 2011 The American Phytopathological Society