Richard A. Sniezko, and
Abul K. M. Ekramoddoullah
First and third authors: Pacific Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada, 506 West Burnside Road, Victoria, BC, V8Z 1M5, Canada; and second author: United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Dorena Genetic Resource Center, 34963 Shoreview Road, Cottage Grove, OR 97424.
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Accepted for publication 28 March 2011.
Multiple families of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are believed to contribute to plant quantitative resistance to various pathogens. Along with other host PR proteins, PR3 chitinase is one protein component participating in genetic resistance of western white pine (Pinus monticola) to the white pine blister rust (WPBR) pathogen (Cronartium ribicola). In the present study, we characterized a novel P. monticola class IV chitinase gene (PmCh4B) and further analyzed its nucleotide variations in the open-pollinated seed families of diverse geographical distribution and variable levels of quantitative resistance to C. ribicola infection. PmCh4B showed high haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.94) and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.00965), similar to those of other conifer genes related to environmental stresses. A low level of intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD) (but most of the levels with statistical significance) was found within a distance of ≈800 bp. Based on PmCh4B haplotype frequency, moderate to high levels of population structure were observed among P. monticola seed families currently used in breeding programs for WPBR resistance (average FST = 0.163, P < 0.001). Association analysis revealed that allelic variants and multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms of PmCh4B were significantly associated with quantitative levels of P. monticola resistance against C. ribicola. This work represents the first association study for quantitative resistance in western white pine pathosystem and provides a potential for marker-assisted selection in white pine breeding.
© 2011 Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service