David W. Ramming,
Siraprapa Mahanil, and
First, second, and third authors: U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Parlier, CA 93648-9757; fourth, sixth, and seventh authors: USDA-ARS Grape Genetics Research Unit, Geneva, NY 14456; and fifth author: New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Horticulture Department, Geneva, NY 14456.
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Accepted for publication 15 November 2010.
In the present study we screened the progeny of Vitis vinifera × V. romanetii populations segregating for resistance to powdery mildew and determined the presence of a single, dominant locus, Ren4, conferring rapid and extreme resistance to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus Erysiphe necator. In each of nine Ren4 pseudo-backcross 2 (pBC2) and pBC3 populations (1,030 progeny), resistance fit a 1:1 segregation ratio and overall segregated as 543 resistant progeny to 487 susceptible. In full-sib progeny, microscopic observations revealed the reduction of penetration success rate (as indicated by the emergence of secondary hyphae) from 86% in susceptible progeny to below 10% in resistant progeny. Similarly, extreme differences were seen macroscopically. Ratings for Ren4 pBC2 population 03-3004 screened using natural infection in a California vineyard and greenhouse and using artificial inoculation of an aggressive New York isolate were fully consistent among all three pathogen sources and environments. From 2006 to 2010, Ren4 pBC2 and pBC3 vines were continuously screened in California and New York (in the center of diversity for E. necator), and no sporulating colonies were observed. For population 03-3004, severity ratings on leaves, shoots, berries, and rachises were highly correlated (R2 = 0.875 to 0.996) in the vineyard. Together, these data document a powdery mildew resistance mechanism not previously described in the Vitaceae or elsewhere, in which a dominantly inherited resistance prevents hyphal emergence and is non-race-specific and tissue-independent. In addition to its role in breeding for durable resistance, Ren4 may provide mechanistic insights into the early events that enable powdery mildew infection.
Mlg, PAMP-triggered immunity, Uncinula necator.
This article is in the public domain and not copyrightable. It may be freely reprinted with customary crediting of the source. The American Phytopathological Society, 2011.