Abhineet M. Sharma,
Siobain Duffy, and
Rodrigo P. P. Almeida
First, second, and fourth authors: Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley; and third author: Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ.
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Accepted for publication 2 November 2010.
Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3; Ampelovirus, Closteroviridae), associated with grapevine leafroll disease, is an important pathogen found across all major grape-growing regions of the world. The genetic diversity of GLRaV-3 in Napa Valley, CA, was studied by sequencing 4.7 kb in the 3′ terminal region of 50 isolates obtained from Vitis vinifera ‘Merlot’. GLRaV-3 isolates were subdivided into four distinct phylogenetic clades. No evidence of positive selection was observed in the data set, although neutral selection (ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates = 1.1) was observed in one open reading frame (ORF 11, p4). Additionally, the four clades had variable degrees of overall nucleotide diversity. Moreover, no geographical structure among isolates was observed, and isolates belonging to different phylogenetic clades were found in distinct vineyards, with one exception. Considered with the evidence of purifying selection (i.e., against deleterious mutations), these data indicate that the population of GLRaV-3 in Napa Valley is not expanding and its effective population size is not increasing. Furthermore, research on the biological characterization of GLRaV-3 strains might provide valuable insights on the biology of this species that may have epidemiological relevance.
© 2011 The American Phytopathological Society