Jianxia Ma, and
First, second, and fifth authors: College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Monitoring and Management of Crop Diseases and Pest Insects, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing 210095, P.R. China; third author: BASF SE, 67117 Limburgerhof, Germany; and fourth author: BASF (China) Co. Ltd., Shanghai, 200001, P.R. China.
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Accepted for publication 25 January 2010.
Four isolates of Peronophythora litchii with resistance to carboxylic acid amide (CAA) fungicides were selected on fungicide-amended agar. These isolates had various levels of resistance, as evidenced by their resistance factor (RF), which is the 50% effective concentration (EC50) value of a particular isolate divided by that of the wild-type parent. RF values to dimethomorph for the four isolates were 15, 24, 141, and >1,500. Resistance was stable for two isolates, while the EC50 values decreased for the other two after repeated subculturing on fungicide-free medium. Cross-resistance occurred with all CAAs tested here (dimethomorph, mandipropamid, flumorph, and pyrimorph), but not with strobilurins (azoxystrobin and famoxadone) or other fungicides (metalaxyl, cymoxanil, and mancozeb). Studies on fitness parameters (mycelial growth, sporulation, spore germination, zoospore formation, aggressiveness, and temperature tolerance) in the parent wild-type and resistant isolates demonstrated that penalties in different parameters may be associated with CAA resistance, depending on the isolate. These studies show that Peronophythora litchii is able to express CAA resistance under laboratory conditions but it is not known if resistant strains could become established in the field and sensitivity monitoring studies are recommended.
© 2010 The American Phytopathological Society