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Pathotypes and Genetic Relationship of Worldwide Collections of Elsinoë spp. Causing Scab Diseases of Citrus

June 2009 , Volume 99 , Number  6
Pages  721 - 728

J. W. Hyun, S. H. Yi, S. J. MacKenzie, L. W. Timmer, K. S. Kim, S. K. Kang, H. M. Kwon, and H. C. Lim

First, fifth, and seventh authors: Citrus Experiment Station, National Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, R.D.A. Jeju, 697-943, S. Korea; second author: National Instrumentation Center for Environmental Management (NICEM), Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-921, S. Korea; third author: University of Florida, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Wimauma 33598; fourth author, University of Florida, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred 33850; sixth author: Korea National Agricultural College, R.D.A., Kyonggido, 445-893, S. Korea; eighth author: Subtropical Environment Division, National Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, R.D.A., Jeju, 690-150, S. Korea.

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Accepted for publication 17 February 2009.

Two scab diseases are recognized currently on citrus: citrus scab, caused by Elsinoë fawcettii, and sweet orange scab, caused by E. australis. Because the two species cannot be reliably distinguished by morphological or cultural characteristics, host range and molecular methods must be used to identify isolates. Four pathotypes of E. fawcettii and two of E. australis have been described to date based on host range. The host specificity and genetic relationships among 76 isolates from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Korea, New Zealand, and the United States were investigated. Based on pathogenicity tests on eight differential hosts, 61 isolates were identified as E. fawcettii and 15 as E. australis. Of 61 isolates of E. fawcettii, 24 isolates were identified as the Florida broad host range (FBHR) pathotype, 7 as the Florida narrow host range (FNHR) pathotype, 10 as the Tryon's pathotype, and 3 as the “Lemon” pathotype. Two new pathotypes, the “Jingeul” and the satsuma, rough lemon, grape-fruit, clementine (SRGC), are described, and four isolates did not fit into any of the known pathotypes of E. fawcettii. Of the 15 isolates of E. australis from Argentina and Brazil, 9 belonged to the sweet orange pathotype and 6 from Korea to the natsudaidai pathotype. E. fawcettii and E. australis were clearly distinguishable among groups by random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) assays and the E. fawcettii group was divided into three subgroups, A-1, A-2, and A-3. The A-1 group was composed of the FBHR, FNHR, and SRGC pathotypes; some Lemon pathotypes; and the uncertain isolates. The A-2 subgroup included all of the Tryon's pathotype isolates and one of the three Lemon pathotype isolates and the A-3 group contained the Jingeul pathotype isolates. E. australis was differentiated into two groups: B-1, the natsudaidai pathotype isolates, and B-2, the sweet orange pathotype isolates. Isolates of E. fawcettii and E. australis were clearly distinguishable by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the translation elongation factor 1 α (TEF) gene. There were also fixed nucleotide differences in the ITS and TEF genes that distinguished subgroups separated by RAPD-PCR within species. We confirmed two species of Elsinoë, two pathotypes of E. australis, and at least six pathotypes of E. fawcettii and described their distribution in the countries included in this study.

© 2009 The American Phytopathological Society