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Standardizing the Nomenclature for Clonal Lineages of the Sudden Oak Death Pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum

July 2009 , Volume 99 , Number  7
Pages  792 - 795

Niklaus J. Grünwald, Erica M. Goss, Kelly Ivors, Matteo Garbelotto, Frank N. Martin, Simone Prospero, Everett Hansen, Peter J. M. Bonants, Richard C. Hamelin, Gary Chastagner, Sabine Werres, David M. Rizzo, Gloria Abad, Paul Beales, Guillaume J. Bilodeau, Cheryl L. Blomquist, Clive Brasier, Stephan C. Brière, Anne Chandelier, Jennifer M. Davidson, Sandra Denman, Marianne Elliott, Susan J. Frankel, Ellen M. Goheen, Hans de Gruyter, Kurt Heungens, Delano James, Alan Kanaskie, Michael G. McWilliams, Willem Man in ‘t Veld, Eduardo Moralejo, Nancy K. Osterbauer, Mary E. Palm, Jennifer L. Parke, Ana Maria Perez Sierra, Simon F. Shamoun, Nina Shishkoff, Paul W. Tooley, Anna Maria Vettraino, Joan Webber, and Timothy L. Widmer

First and second authors: Horticultural Crops Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Corvallis, OR 97330; third author: North Carolina State University, Mills River, NC 28759; fourth author: Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA; fifth author: Crop Improvement and Protection Unit, USDA-ARS, Salinas, CA 93905; sixth author: WSL Swiss Federal Research Institute, 8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland; seventh author: Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis OR 97331; eighth author: Plant Research International, Wageningen UR, Wageningen, The Netherlands; ninth author: Natural Resources Canada, Department of Forest Sciences, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; tenth author: Department of Plant Pathology, Washington State University, Research and Extension Center, Puyallup, WA 9837; eleventh author: Julius Kuehn Institut (JKI), Institute for Plant Protection in Horticulture and Forests, Braunschweig, Germany; twelfth author: University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616; thirteenth author and thirty-third authors: USDA APHIS, Beltsville, MD 20705; fourteenth author: Central Sciences Laboratory, York YO41 1LZ, N Yorkshire, England; fifteenth author: USDA-ARS, Salinas, CA, 93905; sixteenth author: California Department of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, CA 95832; seventeenth, twenty-first, and fortieth authors: Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH, UK; eighteenth author: Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa, ON Canada; nineteenth author: Walloon Agricultural Research Centre (CRAW), B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium; twentieth author: University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822; twenty-second author: Washington State University, Puyallup, WA 98371; twenty-third author: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA 94710; twenty-fourth author: USDA Forest Service, Central Point, OR 97502; twenty-fifth and thirtieth authors: Plant Protection Service, Wageningen, 6700 HC, The Netherlands; twenty-sixth author: Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium; twenty-seventh author: Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Sidney, BC V8L 1H3, Canada; twenty-eighth and twenty-ninth authors: Oregon Department of Forestry, Salem, OR 97310; thirty-first author: Instituto Mediterráneo de Estudios Avanzados, IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), 07190, Esporles, Balearic Islands, Spain; thirty-second author: Oregon Department of Agriculture, Salem, OR 97310; thirty-fourth author: Dept. of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331; thirty-fifth author: Instituto Agroforestal Mediterráneo, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia (IAM-UPV), 46022 Valencia, Spain; thirty-sixth author: Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC V8Z 1M5 Canada; thirty-seventh, thirty-eighth, and fourty-first authors: USDA-ARS FDWSRU, Fort Detrick, MD 21702; and thirty-ninth author: Department of Plant Protection, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 01100 Italy.

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Accepted for publication 8 March 2009.

Phytophthora ramorum, the causal agent of sudden oak death and ramorum blight, is known to exist as three distinct clonal lineages which can only be distinguished by performing molecular marker-based analyses. However, in the recent literature there exists no consensus on naming of these lineages. Here we propose a system for naming clonal lineages of P. ramorum based on a consensus established by the P. ramorum research community. Clonal lineages are named with a two letter identifier for the continent on which they were first found (e.g., NA = North America; EU = Europe) followed by a number indicating order of appearance. Clonal lineages known to date are designated NA1 (mating type: A2; distribution: North America; environment: forest and nurseries), NA2 (A2; North America; nurseries), and EU1 (predominantly A1, rarely A2; Europe and North America; nurseries and gardens). It is expected that novel lineages or new variants within the existing three clonal lineages could in time emerge.

Additional keywords:exotic pathogen, forensics, molecular ecology, phylogeography, population genetics.

The American Phytopathological Society, 2009